Connect with us

Heartland

Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability

The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely…

Republished by Plato

Published

on


. 2014 Jan;76 Pt B(0 0):416-24.

doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.07.028. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

Affiliations

Free PMC article

Item in Clipboard

Yasmin L Hurd et al. Neuropharmacology. .

Free PMC article

Abstract

The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue’.

Keywords: Cannabinoid; Marijuana; Nucleus accumbens; Opioid neuropeptide; Prefrontal cortex.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

Cannabinoid receptor mRNA (CNR1) expression in the human brain emphasizes this gene’s abundant expression in cerebral cortex – such as insular cortex (I) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) – as well as the caudate nucleus (CN), putamen (Pu), nucleus accumbens (NAc), hippocampus (Hipp), amygdala (Amy), and cerebellum (CB). Absent-to-low mRNA expression is notable in the thalamus (T), basal forebrain (BF), globus pallidus (GP), and midbrain (Ms).

Figure 2

Figure 2

Schematic illustration of the striatonigral ‘Go’ andstriatopallidal ‘NoGo’ pathways. These medium spiny output neurons are distinguishable based on their targets and subcellular markers, namely the expression of D1R (purple) and D2R (brown), respectively. Both cell-types, however, express CB1R (orange). This dissociation is based mainly on the dorsal striatal circuit, but a similar organization, particularly with respect to the ‘NoGo’ pathway, exists for the ventral striatal circuit.

Figure 3

Figure 3

Periodic low-to-moderate THC exposure during adolescence (1.5 mg/kg every third day between postnatal days 28 and 49) alters Drd2 and Penk mRNA expression in the adult nucleus accumbens. These genes are strongly enriched in striatopallidal neurons of the nucleus accumbens (*p < 0.05).

Figure 4

Figure 4

PENK SNPs (rs2609997 and rs2576573) are associated with PENK expression in the human brain. High-risk alleles for cannabis dependence of the rs2609997 and rs2576573 PENK SNPs associate with elevated mRNA expression and met-enkephalin peptide (met-enk) levels in the human striatum (A). Similarly, these alleles associate with elevated mRNA expression in central amygdala nucleus (B). (High-risk genotypes = C/C + C/T for rs2609997 or A/A + A/G for rs2576573; low-risk genotypes = T/T for rs2609997 or G/G for rs2576573. *p < 0.05.)

Figure 5

Figure 5

Synergistic Contribution of negative affect trait and PENK variants to cannabis dependence vulnerability. (High-risk genotype = C/C + C/T for rs2609997 or A/A + A/G for rs2576573; low-risk genotype = T/T for rs2609997 or G/G for rs2576573. ***p < 0.01; ****p < 0.001. Modified from Jutras-Aswad et al., 2012.)

Figure 6

Figure 6

Schematic overview of the interaction between environmental factors, genetics and behavioral traits that together contribute to complex neuropsychiatric disorders like addiction. Vulnerability involves a delicate balance between factors that promote and protect against disease, and adolescent THC, an environmental factor, may tip this balance in teens with high-risk genotypes and behavioral traits.

Similar articles

Cited by 33 articles

Publication types

MeSH terms

Substances

Grant support

LinkOut – more resources

  • Full Text Sources

  • Medical

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23954491/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1z7zlNEMzQex5jriqkhCblNtckSEpT9xYlxxeymU_73UTETESY&fc=20200804213258&ff=20200811164741&v=2.11.5

Heartland

Thc-》cbd

Republished by Plato

Published

on

So I’ve had a slight escapism problem with the since it was introduced into my life. Because I live in a state with it not being legal and I have noticed how much it holds me back I have been wanting to make the transition to cbd for my anxiety.

I have several questions on this topic. Most of the reason I smoked was to get sleep I take adhd meds and I have no desire to eat or sleep. Is cbd still a good alternative being that I have these problems or would people suggest others. Im really worried about getting in trouble due to having cbd because my job drug tests, and the smell is very similar to weed…

Suggestions would be much appreciated!

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jzh4a9/thccbd/

Continue Reading

Heartland

JUICE BOX FARMS SPECIAL SAUCE

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jzg5s1/juice_box_farms_special_sauce/

Continue Reading

Heartland

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Source:

Continue Reading
Heartland5 days ago

Did I just get ripped off?

Heartland2 days ago

Legal Status of CBD in Indiana?

Heartland4 days ago

Fly with Cannabis – Which Countries Let You Do It

CBD4 days ago

EU Beat France, CBD Legal Throughout EU

Heartland3 days ago

Suspitcions on a CBD shop in my city

Heartland1 day ago

Germany Rejected Its Recreational Cannabis Bill

Heartland1 day ago

Germany Rejected Its Recreational Cannabis Bill

Heartland1 day ago

Germany Rejected Its Recreational Cannabis Bill

Heartland4 days ago

Anyone tried or heard of “plant love naturals”?

Heartland5 days ago

Hemp & Native American Sovereignty

Heartland8 hours ago

Lebanon Legalized Medical Cannabis, 1st in Arab World

Heartland8 hours ago

Lebanon Legalized Medical Cannabis, 1st in Arab World

Heartland8 hours ago

Lebanon Legalized Medical Cannabis, 1st in Arab World

Heartland4 days ago

European Court of Justice Rules that CBD is not a narcotic

Heartland3 days ago

Grado Labs Review – The Hemp Limited Edition Headphone

Heartland5 days ago

Hemp Seed Oil Benefits: Skin, Brain, & Heart Health

Heartland5 days ago

Many people misuse the word hemp when they are actually referring to Marijuana and this is a great visual to show the differences between both.

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

New Jersey lawmakers take another major step toward launching legal cannabis

Metal3 days ago

Turkish metal producers’ foreign sales prices up 5.85% in Oct from Sept

CBD5 days ago

CBD News: DEA lashes out in hemp lawsuit, says hemp activists are trying to ‘hijack’ agency priorities

Heartland5 days ago

Best Black Friday Delta 8 THC Deals 2020

Heartland5 days ago

Sam’s Valley Hemp White 16.4% CBG!

Material3 days ago

Morphological, structural, thermal properties of a native starch obtained from babassu mesocarp for food packaging application

Heartland5 days ago

Picture worth thousand words! 🤩

Heartland4 days ago

Huge win for European CBD Industry

Material3 days ago

Multifunctional Flexible and Stretchable Graphite-Silicone Rubber Composites

Material2 days ago

Injection of H2-rich carbonaceous materials into the Blast furnace: devolatilization, gasification and combustion characteristics and effect of increased H2-H2O on iron ore pellets reducibility

Manufacturing4 days ago

Remote Camera Doorbell And Smart Lock With Raspberry Pi

Heartland5 days ago

Mike Adams’ Sometimes Controversial Take On Cannabis Explored In New Book

Trending

A Cloud Nine Capital Entity Copyright © 2020 – All Rights Reserved Proudly Made in America