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Three-dimensional piezoelectric fibrous scaffolds selectively promote mesenchymal stem cell differentiation


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The discovery of electric fields in biological tissues has led to efforts in developing technologies utilizing electrical stimulation for therapeutic applications. Native tissues, such as cartilage and bone, exhibit piezoelectric behavior, wherein electrical activity can be generated due to mechanical deformation. Yet, the use of piezoelectric materials have largely been unexplored as a potential strategy in tissue engineering, wherein a piezoelectric biomaterial acts as a scaffold to promote cell behavior and the formation of large tissues.

Here we show, for the first time, that piezoelectric materials can be fabricated into flexible, three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds and can be used to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and corresponding extracellular matrix/tissue formation in physiological loading conditions. Piezoelectric scaffolds that exhibit low voltage output, or streaming potential, promoted chondrogenic differentiation and piezoelectric scaffolds with a high voltage output promoted osteogenic differentiation. Electromechanical stimulus promoted greater differentiation than mechanical loading alone. Results demonstrate the additive effect of electromechanical stimulus on stem cell differentiation, which is an important design consideration for tissue engineering scaffolds. Piezoelectric, smart materials are attractive as scaffolds for regenerative medicine strategies due to their inherent electrical properties without the need for external power sources for electrical stimulation.

This paper originally appeared in Biomaterials 149, 2017, pages 51-62

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Log in or sign up below to download the full-text article PDF.

The discovery of electric fields in biological tissues has led to efforts in developing technologies utilizing electrical stimulation for therapeutic applications. Native tissues, such as cartilage and bone, exhibit piezoelectric behavior, wherein electrical activity can be generated due to mechanical deformation. Yet, the use of piezoelectric materials have largely been unexplored as a potential strategy in tissue engineering, wherein a piezoelectric biomaterial acts as a scaffold to promote cell behavior and the formation of large tissues.

Here we show, for the first time, that piezoelectric materials can be fabricated into flexible, three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds and can be used to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and corresponding extracellular matrix/tissue formation in physiological loading conditions. Piezoelectric scaffolds that exhibit low voltage output, or streaming potential, promoted chondrogenic differentiation and piezoelectric scaffolds with a high voltage output promoted osteogenic differentiation. Electromechanical stimulus promoted greater differentiation than mechanical loading alone. Results demonstrate the additive effect of electromechanical stimulus on stem cell differentiation, which is an important design consideration for tissue engineering scaffolds. Piezoelectric, smart materials are attractive as scaffolds for regenerative medicine strategies due to their inherent electrical properties without the need for external power sources for electrical stimulation.

This paper originally appeared in Biomaterials 149, 2017, pages 51-62

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/biomaterials/features/threedimensional-piezoelectric-fibrous-scaffolds/

Metal

This Morning in Metals: Norsk Hydro begins production restarts at Husnes B-line

This morning in metals news: Norsk Hydro recently resumed production at its Husnes aluminum plant; the Census Bureau recently released the latest data on new housing starts; and copper prices…

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Norsk Hydro

filins/Adobe Stock

This morning in metals news: Norsk Hydro recently resumed production at its Husnes aluminum plant; the Census Bureau recently released the latest data on new housing starts; and copper prices continue to rise.

Sign up today for Gunpowder, MetalMiner’s free, biweekly e-newsletter featuring news, analysis and more.

Norsk Hydro resumes production at Husnes B-line

Oslo-based Norsk Hydro announced the restarts of production at its Husnes aluminum plant after having operated at half capacity since 2009.

The A-line at Hydro’s Husnes plant produces about 95,000 tonnes of aluminum annually. Hydro added it will ramp up output to around 195,000 tonnes as it restarts 200 electrolysis cells in the one-kilometer-long B line.

Hydro President and CEO Hilde Merete Aasheim said the restarts are based on a “combination of increased demand for aluminum and expectations that Norway will continue to utilize EU’s emissions trading system (ETS) for 2021-2030.”

Strong October for housing starts

In addition to the Norsk Hydro news, U.S. housing starts reached a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 1.53 million in October. The October rate marked a 4.9% increase from September.

Furthermore, the October rate marked a 14.2% increase year over year.

Meanwhile, single-family housing starts in October hit a rate of 1.18 million, up 6.4% from September.

In addition, the October rate for units in buildings with five units or more hit 334,000.

Copper surges

Lastly, the copper price shows no signs of slowing down.

Positive news regarding potential COVID-19 vaccines and the beginnings of the presidential transition have seemed to stabilize and boost markets. In turn, the copper price has surged above $7,300 per metric ton.

The LME three-month copper price closed Tuesday at $7,314 per metric ton, marking a 7.17% month-over-month increase.

The MetalMiner 2021 Annual Outlook consolidates our 12-month view and provides buying organizations with a complete understanding of the fundamental factors driving prices and a detailed forecast that can be used when sourcing metals for 2021 — including expected average prices, support and resistance levels.

Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/agmetalminer/~3/ugj4KfXZyZ4/

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Metal

Japanese crude steel output up 11% in October from September

In October this year, Japanese crude steel production was up by 11 percent compared to the previous month totaling 7.20 million mt.

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In October this year, Japanese crude steel production was up by 11 percent compared to the previous month and fell by 11.7 percent compared to October 2019, totaling 7.20 million mt, according to the data released by the Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF).

Meanwhile, in the given month Japan’s pig iron production totaled 5.12 million metric tons, rising by 10.1 percent compared to the previous month and down by 16.1 percent year on year.

In the first 10 months of this year, the country’s pig iron output stood at 50.8 million metric tons, down by 19.4 percent, while its crude steel production came to 68.4 million metric tons, falling by 18.4 percent, both on year-on-year basis.

The production volume of some steel products in Japan can be seen in the chart below:

Product

October 2020 (mt)

M-o-m change (%)

Y-o-y change (%)

Hot rolled section

430,700

7.24

0.49

Bar

703,900

8.04

-8.83

Wire rod

130,600

9.74

21.8

Heavy plate

671,800

-3

-20.5

Hot rolled wide strip

2,959,100

11.3

-12.8

Cold rolled wide strip

1,233,900

11.3

-10.1

Galvanized sheet

743,800

20

-5.9

Welded pipe

267,600

-0.7

-15.3

Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-news/latest-news/japanese-crude-steel-output-up-11-in-october-from-september-1174523.htm

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Metal

Japanese crude steel output up 11% in October from September

In October this year, Japanese crude steel production was up by 11 percent compared to the previous month totaling 7.20 million mt.

Republished by Plato

Published

on

In October this year, Japanese crude steel production was up by 11 percent compared to the previous month and fell by 11.7 percent compared to October 2019, totaling 7.20 million mt, according to the data released by the Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF).

Meanwhile, in the given month Japan’s pig iron production totaled 5.12 million metric tons, rising by 10.1 percent compared to the previous month and down by 16.1 percent year on year.

In the first 10 months of this year, the country’s pig iron output stood at 50.8 million metric tons, down by 19.4 percent, while its crude steel production came to 68.4 million metric tons, falling by 18.4 percent, both on year-on-year basis.

The production volume of some steel products in Japan can be seen in the chart below:

Product

October 2020 (mt)

M-o-m change (%)

Y-o-y change (%)

Hot rolled section

430,700

7.24

0.49

Bar

703,900

8.04

-8.83

Wire rod

130,600

9.74

21.8

Heavy plate

671,800

-3

-20.5

Hot rolled wide strip

2,959,100

11.3

-12.8

Cold rolled wide strip

1,233,900

11.3

-10.1

Galvanized sheet

743,800

20

-5.9

Welded pipe

267,600

-0.7

-15.3

Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-news/latest-news/japanese-crude-steel-output-up-11-in-october-from-september-1174523.htm

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