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Tensile Properties of Single Cellulosic Bamboo Fiber (Gigantochloa Scortechinii) Using Response Surface Methodology

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Gigantochloa scortechinii is one of the most well-known bamboo species in Malaysia because of its advantageous physical, morphological and strength properties. This study presented the effect of alkali treatment conditions of single cellulosic bamboo strips fiber following tensile test and optimized the parameters through response surface methodology based on central composite design. Bamboo strips fiber was treated under various alkali concentrations of 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt.% and soaking times of 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Results showed that the optimum tensile strength at 4 wt.% alkali concentration and 12 h soaking time was improved by 28% compared with water retting condition. The design-Expert software was used to optimize the tensile properties of single cellulosic bamboo strips fiber. The effect of two independent variables, namely, alkali concentration and soaking time, on the optimized tensile properties of a single cellulosic bamboo strips fiber was investigated. Results showed acceptable R2 and high R2Adj correlation coefficients for tensile strength, reaching 0.6926 and 0.9575, respectively. The high R2 and R2Adj correlation coefficients for tensile modulus reached 0.9376 and 0.8931, respectively. Overall results showed that the confirmatory experiments show that the error between predicted and actual values does not exceed 5%. thus, the model can be effectively used to predict tensile properties.

摘要

巨竹是马来西亚最著名的竹种之一,因其优越的物理、形态和强度特性. 摘要通过拉伸试验,研究了单根纤维素竹条纤维碱处理条件的影响,并采用基于中心复合设计的响应面法对参数进行了优化. 对竹条纤维进行2、4、6、8 wt.%不同碱浓度的处理,浸泡时间分别为1、3、6、12、18、24h. 结果表明,最佳拉伸强度为4wt. 与水浸条件相比,%碱浓度和12h浸泡时间提高了28%. 利用设计专家软件对单纤维竹条纤维的拉伸性能进行了优化. 研究了碱浓度和浸泡时间两个自变量对单纤维竹条纤维拉伸性能的影响. 结果表明,抗拉强度的相关系数R2和R2Adj均可接受,分别为0.6926和0.9575. 拉伸模量的高R2和R2Adj相关系数分别为0.9376和0.8931. 总体结果表明,验证性实验表明,预测值与实测值的误差不超过5%. 因此,该模型可以有效地预测材料的拉伸性能.

Additional information

Funding

This work was supported by the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Ministry of Education Malaysia [GUP-2018-093].

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Ministry of Education Malaysia for their financial support under Research Grant GUP-2018-093.

Source: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15440478.2020.1745117?af=R

Heartland

Florida high school official fired for using legal medical marijuana

Gulf War veteran Mike Hickman used legal medical cannabis instead of dangerous opioids. When district officials found out, they fired him.

The post Florida high school official fired for using legal medical marijuana appeared first on Leafly.

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When a fight broke out among students at Belleview High School in central Florida, school official Mike Hickman entered the fray and put his body on the line to intervene. Nothing in the school’s administrative code tasked him with risking himself to secure his students’ safety, but he did so anyway.

A school official’s good deed didn’t go unpunished: He was fired after stepping in to stop a schoolyard fight.

A Marine combat veteran who suffered serious injuries while serving in the 1990-1991 Gulf War, Hickman has spent the past thirty years living with chronic pain from those wounds—and from a string of surgeries he underwent to heal them. For a time he relied on prescribed opioids for relief, but then found cannabis worked far better. He could gain relief without the serious side effects—and risk of addiction and overdose—that came with opioid use.

Hickman performed his job at Belleview—where he worked as the school’s student services manager—admirably, for years, while privately managing his medical condition.

Then came the schoolyard fight.

Punished for his good deed

It happened a year ago, in Nov. 2019.

While breaking up the brawl, Hickman suffered a new injury—one serious enough to require a visit to a worker’s compensation doctor. Acting on behalf of his employer, that doctor required him to submit a urine sample. The sample wasn’t part of Hickman’s treatment. Its only purpose was to test for drug use.

When the urine test came back positive for THC, Hickman’s 10 years of service to Marion County Public Schools ended. The Marion County School Board fired Mike Hickman, pointing to district policy prohibiting employees from using cannabis for any reason, even if that use takes place off school grounds and at the recommendation of a physician.

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Go on opioids, or lose your job

District officials offered to limit his punishment to a suspension if Hickman ended his use of medical cannabis. Forced to choose between his career as an educator and the medicine that secures his quality of life, Hickman chose his medicine.

Mike Hickman’s medication is legal according to state law. But it’s against school district policy.

Medical cannabis has been legal in Florida since 2016, when 71% of voters approved a state constitutional amendment allowing doctors to recommend it to their patients. And according to a 2019 article from MJ Biz Daily, business is now “booming, with an average of nearly two dispensaries opening each week across the state.”

There’s no disputing the legality of Mike Hickman’s cannabis use under state law. Nor does anyone allege that he came to work impaired, or that he failed in any way to perform his official duties with the utmost skill and professionalism.

But after months of hearings and legal wrangling, none of that mattered. On Nov. 4, the Marion Public School Board voted 5-0 to terminate his employment.

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What about the children?

Hickman has declined to discuss the case publicly. Shortly after the school board’s Nov. 4 decision, Hickman’s attorney, Mark Herdman, told a local reporter the action “was just another unfortunate decision handed down by the Marion County School Board to fire yet another good employee.”

But to lose your employment, including your place in the lives of countless young people who look up to you as an educator, a mentor, and a pillar of the community, goes far beyond a simple job loss. Seeing someone who served his country with honor, and was wounded in the field of battle, be sacked for choosing a safe, effective medicine exposes a terrible hypocrisy at the heart of the War on Drugs.

For decades, America’s weed warriors have justified their destructive prohibition against a beneficial plant by appealing to the fate of “the children.” What message, they ask, would it send to allow a combat veteran to smoke a joint or use a cannabis salve in the privacy of his own home instead of popping dangerous, addictive pills?

The real question is what lesson will Mike Hickman’s students learn from a society that publicly shames and summarily dismisses an upstanding citizen for something that should be nobody’s business but his own.

A cannabis Catch-22

Contacted by Leafly, several school board members directed questions to Kevin Christian, the district’s head of public relations.

District officials scrambled to find a way to justify Hickman’s firing. At issue is a long-outdated zero-tolerance policy for a medication that’s now legal.

At first Christian tried to frame the issue as Hickman’s failure to disclose his use of medical cannabis to school authorities prior to failing his drug test—“that’s really a big portion of what the school board expressed concern over”—though he eventually conceded that nothing in the school board’s policy would have prevented Hickman from being fired on the spot for simply making such a disclosure.

In fact, that policy specifically lists marijuana among prohibited substances, with no consideration of whether it’s legal under state law. This zero-tolerance approach to maintaining a “drug free workplace” has remained unaltered for decades. The school board failed to update the district’s policies in any way following the legalization of medical cannabis in Florida four years ago.

School board hiding behind federal law

Even now, the school board says the fact that cannabis remains federally illegal prevents them for making any further allowances, since public schools receive federally funding that could theoretically be cut off if they permit even a single exception.

Back in 2019, a committee in the US House of Representatives directed the Office of Personnel Management to review policies surrounding the hiring and firing of federal employees in states with legal cannabis, writing:

The Committee encourages OPM to review its policies and guidelines regarding hiring and firing of individuals who use marijuana in states where that individual’s private use of marijuana is not prohibited under the law of the State. These policies should reflect updated changes to the law on marijuana usage and clearly state the impact of marijuana usage on Federal employment.

But so far, no such action has been taken at the federal level.

Meanwhile in Florida, a bill “prohibiting an employer from taking adverse personnel action against an employee or job applicant who is a qualified patient using medical marijuana” was introduced in early 2020, but died in committee.

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The next employee may ignore the fight

The Marion County School Board voted unanimously to terminate him despite overwhelming support for Hickman from students, faculty, parents, and the Marion Education Association, a local teachers union.

“Imagine if this employee just sat back and let the two students continue to fight without regard for their safety,” Chris Altobello, Marion Education Association executive director, told the Ocala Star-Banner newspaper after Hickman’s firing. “We wouldn’t be here right now.”

Hickman, Altobello added, was no more impaired “than someone who took an aspirin for a headache. They implied that this is tantamount to smoking pot in the boys bathroom!”

Lazy policy results in a good man’s firing

Eventually a review process landed the case before Judge Suzanne Van Wyk of the state Division of Administrative Hearings in Tallahassee. Wyk upheld Hickman’s firing, though not without reservations.

In an eight-page decision, Van Wyk noted Hickman’s argument that it’s unfair to punish someone for using legal medical cannabis when the school board would not object to him “teaching under the influence of opioid pain medications, which he took for years prior to the availability of medical marijuana.”

Still, the best deal offered to Hickman was to stop using cannabis and return to work after a 20-day suspension. Or, put another way: Keep suffering in pain; or take dangerous, addictive pills; or lose your job.

Mike Hickman chose his health and lost his job.

That’s a choice nobody should ever face.

David Bienenstock's Bio Image

David Bienenstock

Veteran cannabis journalist David Bienenstock is the author of “How to Smoke Pot (Properly): A Highbrow Guide to Getting High” (2016 – Penguin/Random House), and the co-host and co-creator of the podcast “Great Moments in Weed History with Abdullah and Bean.” Follow him on Twitter @pot_handbook.

View David Bienenstock’s articles

Source: https://www.leafly.com/news/politics/florida-high-school-official-fired-for-using-legal-medical-marijuana

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CBD/CBG mixture

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/k0867y/cbdcbg_mixture/

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Abrasive Sensitivity of Engineering Polymers and a Bio-Composite under Different Abrasive Conditions

Two different test systems were designed to evaluate the tribological behavior of five engineering plastics (Polyamide-PA grades and Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene-UHMW-PE) and a fully degradable bio-composite (Polylactic Acid-PLA/hemp fibers) targeted to agricultural machinery abrasive conditions. Pin-on-plate tests were performed with different loads, sliding velocity and abrasive particles. The material response was further investigated in a slurry containing abrasive test system…

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Two different test systems were designed to evaluate the tribological behavior of five engineering plastics (Polyamide-PA grades and Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene-UHMW-PE) and a fully degradable bio-composite (Polylactic Acid-PLA/hemp fibers) targeted to agricultural machinery abrasive conditions. Pin-on-plate tests were performed with different loads, sliding velocity and abrasive particles. The material response was further investigated in a slurry containing abrasive test system with different sliding velocities and distances, abrasive media compositions and impact angles. The abrasive wear, the change of the 3D surface roughness parameters, the friction force and contact temperature evolution were also analyzed as a function of the materials’ mechanical properties (H,E,σy,σc,εB,σF,σM) and the dimensionless numbers derived from them. Using the IBM SPSS 25 software, multiple linear regression models were used to statistically evaluate the measured data and to examine the sensitivity of the material properties and test system characteristics on the tribological behavior. For both test setups, the system and material characteristics influencing the dependent variables (wear, friction, heat generation) and the dimensionless numbers formed from the material properties were ranked using standardized regression coefficients derived from the regression models. The abrasion sensitivity of the tested materials were evaluated taking into account a wide range of influencing parameters.

Keywords: abrasive wear; bio-polymer; engineering plastics; mechanical properties; pin-on-plate; regression model; slurry.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33228186/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=18gXB4q-CV5o0kQDSCt3HqwNcsXbn1PxqekJlWJaIbT8zAG16G&fc=20200804213200&ff=20201124115248&v=2.13.0

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