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Properties Characterization of Chemically Modified Hemp Hurds

The effect of chemical treatment of hemp hurds slices in three solutions (EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), NaOH and Ca(OH)₂) on the properties of natural material was discussed in this paper. Changes in the morphology, chemical composition and structure as well as thermal stability of hemp hurds before and after their modification were investigated by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction analysis) and TG (thermogravimetry)/DSC (differential…

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. 2014 Dec 17;7(12):8131-8150.

doi: 10.3390/ma7128131.

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Nadezda Stevulova et al. Materials (Basel). .

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Abstract

The effect of chemical treatment of hemp hurds slices in three solutions (EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), NaOH and Ca(OH)₂) on the properties of natural material was discussed in this paper. Changes in the morphology, chemical composition and structure as well as thermal stability of hemp hurds before and after their modification were investigated by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction analysis) and TG (thermogravimetry)/DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were used for determination of degree of cellulose polymerization of hemp hurd samples. Chemical modification is related to the partial removal of non-cellulosic components of lignin, hemicellulose and pectin as well as waxes from the surface of hemp hurd slices. Another effect of the chemical treatment applied is connected with increasing the crystallinity index of cellulose determined by FTIR and XRD methods. Decrease in degree of cellulose polymerization and polydispersity index in chemically modified hemp hurds compared to the original sample was observed. Increase in thermal stability of treated hemp hurd was found. The most significant changes were observed in alkaline treated hemp hurds by NaOH.

Keywords: FTIR; SEC; TG/DSC; XRD; chemical modification; hemp hurds.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

Cross-section of a hemp stem [6].

Figure 2

Figure 2

Hemp hurd slices.

Figure 3

Figure 3

XRD patterns of hemp hurds samples before (referential) and after chemical modification with marked peaks for determination of the crystalline cellulose contents.

Figure 4

Figure 4

Micrographs of original sample of hemp hurds (a) and chemically modified by NaOH (b), EDTA (c) and Ca(OH)2 (d) (40 times of magnification).

Figure 4

Figure 4

Micrographs of original sample of hemp hurds (a) and chemically modified by NaOH (b), EDTA (c) and Ca(OH)2 (d) (40 times of magnification).

Figure 5

Figure 5

FTIR spectra of reference hemp hurds and chemically modified samples.

Figure 6

Figure 6

FTIR spectra of reference hemp hurds and chemically modified samples.

Figure 7

Figure 7

Relationship between DP values and CIFTIR of cellulose.

Figure 8

Figure 8

Cellulose molecular weight distribution of hemp hurds samples.

Figure 9

Figure 9

DSC curves of referential and chemically treated hemp hurds.

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References

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    1. Yan L., Chouw N. Sustainable concrete and structures with natural fibre reinforcements. In: Lu Y., editor. Infrastructure Corrosion and Durability—A Sustainability Study. OMICS Group eBooks; Foster City, CA, USA: 2014.
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