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Preparation of Lignocellulose-Based Activated Carbon Paper as a Manganese Dioxide Carrier for Adsorption and in-situ Catalytic Degradation of Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a colorless, highly toxic, and flammable gas that is harmful to human health. Recently, many efforts have been devoted to the application of activated carbon to absorb formaldehyde. In this work, lignocellulose-based activated carbon fiber paper (LACFP) loaded with manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) was fabricated for the adsorption and in-situ catalytic degradation of formaldehyde. LACFP was prepared by two-stage carbonization and activation of sisal hemp pulp-formed paper and was then…

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. 2019 Dec 9;7:808.

doi: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00808. eCollection 2019.

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Xiao Zhang et al. Front Chem. .

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Abstract

Formaldehyde is a colorless, highly toxic, and flammable gas that is harmful to human health. Recently, many efforts have been devoted to the application of activated carbon to absorb formaldehyde. In this work, lignocellulose-based activated carbon fiber paper (LACFP) loaded with manganese dioxide (MnO2) was fabricated for the adsorption and in-situ catalytic degradation of formaldehyde. LACFP was prepared by two-stage carbonization and activation of sisal hemp pulp-formed paper and was then impregnated with manganese sulfate (MnSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solutions; MnO2 then formed by in situ growth on the LACFP base by calcination. The catalytic performance of MnO2-loaded LACFP for formaldehyde was then investigated. It was found that the suitable carbonization conditions were elevating the temperature first by raising it at 10°C/min from room temperature to 280°C, then at 2°C/min from 280 to 400°C, maintaining the temperature at 400°C for 1 h, and then increasing it quickly from 400 to 700°C at 15°C/min. The conditions used for activation were similar to those for carbonization, with the temperature additionally being held at 700°C for 2 h. The conditions mentioned above were optimized to maintain the fiber structure and shape integrity of the paper, being conducive to loading with catalytically active substances. Regarding the catalytic activity of MnO2-loaded LACFP, the concentration of formaldehyde decreased by 59 ± 6 ppm and the concentration of ΔCO2 increased by 75 ± 3 ppm when the reaction proceeded at room temperature for 10 h. The results indicated that MnO2-loaded LACFP could catalyze formaldehyde into non-toxic substances.

Keywords: carbon fiber paper; catalytic degradation; formaldehyde; lignocellulose biomass; manganese dioxide.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

Schematic diagram of the device for catalytic degradation reaction of formaldehyde using MnO2-loaded LACFP.

Figure 2

Figure 2

TG and DTG curves of sisal hemp pulp-based paper (A); TG curves at 280–400°C at different heating rates (8, 5, and 2°C/min) (B); at 400°C with different holding times (1, 1.5, and 2 h) (C); and at 400–600°C at different heating rates (5, 10, and 15°C/min) (D).

Figure 3

Figure 3

FTIR spectra of sisal hemp pulp-based papers before and after carbonization.

Figure 4

Figure 4

SEM images of carbonized sisal hemp pulp-based paper at 900°C (A), 800°C (B), and 700°C (C) and a magnified image of 700°C (D).

Figure 5

Figure 5

Photographs showing the sisal hemp pulp-based paper before carbonization (A), after carbonization (B), after activation (C), and after MnO2 loading (D).

Figure 6

Figure 6

SEM images of LACFP of KOH concentrations at (A) 0.5, (B) 1, (C) 2, (D) 4, (E) 6, and (F) 8 mol/L and their N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (G) and pore size distribution curves (H).

Figure 7

Figure 7

Characterization of LACFP and MnO2-loaded LACFP [XRD patterns (A); Mn 2p XPS spectra (B); N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms obtained at 77 K (C); and size distribution (D)].

Figure 8

Figure 8

The morphology of LACFP by HRTEM (B) and the morphology of MnO2-loaded LACFP by SEM (A), TEM (C), and HRTEM (D).

Figure 9

Figure 9

Concentration variation of formaldehyde (A) and ΔCO2(B) for nonea, LACFP, and MnO2-loaded LACFP (aNone denotes only formaldehyde solution without other substances).

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References

    1. Abdul Manap N. R., Shamsudin R., Maghpor M. N., Abdul Hamid M. A., Jalar A. (2018). Adsorption isotherm and kinetic study of gas-solid system of formaldehyde on oil palm mesocarp bio-char: pyrolysis effect. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 6, 970–983. 10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.067 – DOI
    1. Aber S., Khataee A., Sheydaei M. (2009). Optimization of activated carbon fiber preparation from Kenaf using K2HPO4 as chemical activator for adsorption of phenolic compounds. Bioresour. Technol. 100, 6586–6591. 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.07.074 – DOI PubMed
    1. An H., Feng B., Su S. (2009). CO2 capture capacities of activated carbon fibre-phenolic resin composites. Carbon 47, 2396–2405. 10.1016/j.carbon.2009.04.029 – DOI
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