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Pervasive cropland in protected areas highlight trade-offs between conservation and food security

Global cropland expansion over the last century caused widespread habitat loss and degradation. Establishment of protected areas aims to counteract the loss of habitats and to slow species extinctions. However, many protected areas also include high levels of habitat disturbance and conversion for uses such as cropland. Understanding where and why this occurs may realign conservation priorities and inform protected area policy in light of competing priorities such as food security. Here, we use…

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. 2021 Jan 26;118(4):e2010121118.

doi: 10.1073/pnas.2010121118.

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Varsha Vijay et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. .

Abstract

Global cropland expansion over the last century caused widespread habitat loss and degradation. Establishment of protected areas aims to counteract the loss of habitats and to slow species extinctions. However, many protected areas also include high levels of habitat disturbance and conversion for uses such as cropland. Understanding where and why this occurs may realign conservation priorities and inform protected area policy in light of competing priorities such as food security. Here, we use our global synthesis cropland dataset to quantify cropland in protected areas globally and assess their relationship to conservation aims and socio-environmental context. We estimate that cropland occupies 1.4 million km2 or 6% of global protected area. Cropland occurs across all protected area management types, with 22% occurring in strictly protected areas. Cropland inside protected areas is more prevalent in countries with higher population density, lower income inequality, and with higher agricultural suitability of protected lands. While this phenomenon is dominant in midnorthern latitudes, areas of cropland in protected areas of the tropics and subtropics may present greater trade-offs due to higher levels of both biodiversity and food insecurity. Although area-based targets are prominent in biodiversity goal-setting, our results show that they can mask persistent anthropogenic land uses detrimental to native ecosystem conservation. To ensure the long-term efficacy of protected areas, post-2020 goal setting must link aims for biodiversity and human health and improve monitoring of conservation outcomes in cropland-impacted protected areas.

Keywords: CBD; area-based targets; conservation; food security; protected areas.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interest.

References

    1. Klein Goldewijk K., Beusen A., Doelman J., Stehfest E.. New anthropogenic land use estimates for the holocene: HYDE 3.2. Earth Syst. Sci. Data. 2017;9:927–953.
    1. Barrett C. B.. Measuring food insecurity. Science. 2010;327:825–828.
    1. Fogel R. W.. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the Third World. 2004.
    1. Crist E., Mora C., Engelman R.. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection. Science. 2017;356:260–264.
    1. Pimm S. L., Vijay V.. Population, Agriculture, and Biodiversity: Problems and Prospects. 2020;365.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33468666/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210120135252&v=2.14.2

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Best way to give this to your pet?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/lu2lg4/best_way_to_give_this_to_your_pet/

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Best way to give this to your pet?

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Virginia lawmakers agree to legalize marijuana, but not until 2024

Sorry, Virginia. You’ll have to wait nearly three years before possession becomes legal.

The post Virginia lawmakers agree to legalize marijuana, but not until 2024 appeared first on Leafly.

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Virginia lawmakers agree to legalize marijuana, but not until 2024 | Leafly











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RICHMOND, VA — Virginia lawmakers gave final approval Saturday to a bill that will legalize cannabis for adult use, but not until 2024, when retail sales of the drug would begin.

With a compromise bill having cleared the state House and Senate, Virginia becomes the first Southern state to vote to legalize marijuana, joining 15 other states and the District of Columbia. The legislation now goes to Democratic Gov. Ralph Northam, who supports legalization.

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The bill was a top priority for Democrats, who framed legalization as a necessary step to end the disparate treatment of people of color under current marijuana laws. 

But talks between Democrats in the House and Senate grew tense in recent days as the two chambers wrangled over significant differences between their versions of the legislation. 

Negotiations continued into Saturday when, late in the afternoon, details of a compromise agreement were made publicly available.

Under the legislation that passed, possession of up to an ounce (28.3 grams) of marijuana will become legal beginning Jan. 1, 2024, at the same time sales will begin and regulations will go into effect to control the marijuana marketplace in Virginia.

Under a provision Senate Democrats insisted on, the legislation will include a reenactment clause that will require a second vote from the General Assembly, but only on the regulatory framework and criminal penalties for several offenses, including underage use and public consumption of marijuana. A second vote will not be required on legalization.

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The Senate had sought to legalize simple possession this year to immediately end punishments for people with small amounts of marijuana, but House Democrats argued that legalization without a legal market for marijuana could promote the growth of the black market.

Lawmakers last year decriminalized marijuana, making simple possession a civil penalty that can be punished by a fine of no more than $25.

Why the three-year delay?

The three-year delay in legalizing simple possession drew sharp criticism from the American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia, Marijuana Justice, and other racial justice advocacy groups.

“This bill does not advance the cause of equal justice or racial justice in Virginia. It is the product of a closed-door legislative process that has prioritized the interests of recreational marijuana smokers over people and communities of color,” the groups said in a statement before the vote.

But Sen. Adam Ebbin, the chief sponsor of the Senate bill, said the compromise agreement is a good start on legalization.

“It’s been a lot of work to get here, but I would say that we’re on the path to an equitable law allowing responsible adults to use cannabis” he said during the debate.

Groups that opposed legalization entirely have said they are concerned that it could result in an increase in drug-impaired driving crashes and the use of marijuana among youth.

Source: https://www.leafly.com/news/politics/virginia-lawmakers-agree-to-legalize-marijuana-but-not-until-2024

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