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Perovskite solar cells work best with precise seasoning


The liquid solution of perovskite precursor, solvent and additive flows from a slit-shaped nozzle onto the glass substrate below. Image: HZB/Jinzhao Li.
The liquid solution of perovskite precursor, solvent and additive flows from a slit-shaped nozzle onto the glass substrate below. Image: HZB/Jinzhao Li.

A long-cherished dream of materials researchers is a solar cell that can convert sunlight into electrical energy as efficiently as silicon but that can be easily and inexpensively fabricated from abundant materials. Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) in Germany have now come a step closer to achieving this, by improving a process for vertically depositing a solution made from an inexpensive perovskite solute onto a moving substrate below.

Not only have the scientists discovered the crucial role played by one of the solvents used in this process, but they have also taken a closer look at the aging and storage properties of the solution. They report their findings in a paper in Advanced Energy Materials.

Solar cells made of crystalline silicon still account for the lion's share of roof installations and solar farms. But other technologies have long since become established as well – such as those that convert sunlight into electrical energy through the use of extremely thin layers of a photovoltaic material deposited upon a substrate.

The perovskite solar cells that Eva Unger and her team at HZB are researching belong to this group. "These are the best solar cells to date that can be made using a 2D ink," Unger explains. "And now their efficiencies are approaching those for cells made of crystalline silicon."

Many methods have been developed for fabricating small test cells in the laboratory, where they can be studied and improved. But industrial-scale fabrication is still a long way off. "Unfortunately, processes that are optimized for fabricating small surface areas cannot always be scaled up," says Unger.

In other words, not everything that works perfectly in the lab also necessarily works economically on the factory floor. "That's why we are taking the next step and developing scalable methods," Unger explains. "This means our team is focusing on processes for coating larger surfaces." At the Hybrid Silicon Perovskite Research, Integration & Novel Technologies (HySPRINT) Innovation Lab, a center for collaborations between HZB and industry, Unger and her team are concentrating on fabrication processes that have already proven their importance to industry.

"We have experimented here with slot-die coating," she says. In this process, the 'ink' – as the thin liquid solution of perovskite precursor, solvent and additive is known in the trade – flows from a slit-shaped nozzle and falls like a curtain onto a glass substrate below that will later become a solar cell.

After application, crystallization begins, causing an ultra-thin layer of a semiconducting perovskite structure to grow on the glass substrate. Unger and her team have now discovered that the exact amount of an organic solvent called dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the ink is critical for this process. Unger uses DMSO as an additive because it has an amazing effect on the ink.

"DMSO induces crystallization nuclei for the perovskite," she says. Crystallization nuclei are tiny grains that help jump-start a crystal and promote its growth. "During X-ray diffraction experiments at BESSY II, we saw quite a big difference between inks with and without DMSO added."

However, as her team has found out in many experiments, the amount added plays a decisive role. More DMSO favours crystal growth – up to a certain point. If this point is exceeded, other processes come into play and the resulting microstructure reduces the performance of the solar cells.

"It's like seasoning a soup," says Unger. "If you add too little, it remains bland. If you add too much, it won't taste good either. So you need to add just the right amount to make it best." In addition to the optimal composition, the HZB team has also thoroughly investigated the ageing processes and thus the storage life of the inks. "This is an aspect that has received little attention so far," Unger explains. "The age of a perovskite precursor ink can influence device performance. This is an important factor that must be considered when developing inks and processes."

This story is adapted from material from Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

Republished by Plato

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The liquid solution of perovskite precursor, solvent and additive flows from a slit-shaped nozzle onto the glass substrate below. Image: HZB/Jinzhao Li.
The liquid solution of perovskite precursor, solvent and additive flows from a slit-shaped nozzle onto the glass substrate below. Image: HZB/Jinzhao Li.

A long-cherished dream of materials researchers is a solar cell that can convert sunlight into electrical energy as efficiently as silicon but that can be easily and inexpensively fabricated from abundant materials. Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) in Germany have now come a step closer to achieving this, by improving a process for vertically depositing a solution made from an inexpensive perovskite solute onto a moving substrate below.

Not only have the scientists discovered the crucial role played by one of the solvents used in this process, but they have also taken a closer look at the aging and storage properties of the solution. They report their findings in a paper in Advanced Energy Materials.

Solar cells made of crystalline silicon still account for the lion’s share of roof installations and solar farms. But other technologies have long since become established as well – such as those that convert sunlight into electrical energy through the use of extremely thin layers of a photovoltaic material deposited upon a substrate.

The perovskite solar cells that Eva Unger and her team at HZB are researching belong to this group. “These are the best solar cells to date that can be made using a 2D ink,” Unger explains. “And now their efficiencies are approaching those for cells made of crystalline silicon.”

Many methods have been developed for fabricating small test cells in the laboratory, where they can be studied and improved. But industrial-scale fabrication is still a long way off. “Unfortunately, processes that are optimized for fabricating small surface areas cannot always be scaled up,” says Unger.

In other words, not everything that works perfectly in the lab also necessarily works economically on the factory floor. “That’s why we are taking the next step and developing scalable methods,” Unger explains. “This means our team is focusing on processes for coating larger surfaces.” At the Hybrid Silicon Perovskite Research, Integration & Novel Technologies (HySPRINT) Innovation Lab, a center for collaborations between HZB and industry, Unger and her team are concentrating on fabrication processes that have already proven their importance to industry.

“We have experimented here with slot-die coating,” she says. In this process, the ‘ink’ – as the thin liquid solution of perovskite precursor, solvent and additive is known in the trade – flows from a slit-shaped nozzle and falls like a curtain onto a glass substrate below that will later become a solar cell.

After application, crystallization begins, causing an ultra-thin layer of a semiconducting perovskite structure to grow on the glass substrate. Unger and her team have now discovered that the exact amount of an organic solvent called dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the ink is critical for this process. Unger uses DMSO as an additive because it has an amazing effect on the ink.

“DMSO induces crystallization nuclei for the perovskite,” she says. Crystallization nuclei are tiny grains that help jump-start a crystal and promote its growth. “During X-ray diffraction experiments at BESSY II, we saw quite a big difference between inks with and without DMSO added.”

However, as her team has found out in many experiments, the amount added plays a decisive role. More DMSO favours crystal growth – up to a certain point. If this point is exceeded, other processes come into play and the resulting microstructure reduces the performance of the solar cells.

“It’s like seasoning a soup,” says Unger. “If you add too little, it remains bland. If you add too much, it won’t taste good either. So you need to add just the right amount to make it best.” In addition to the optimal composition, the HZB team has also thoroughly investigated the ageing processes and thus the storage life of the inks. “This is an aspect that has received little attention so far,” Unger explains. “The age of a perovskite precursor ink can influence device performance. This is an important factor that must be considered when developing inks and processes.”

This story is adapted from material from Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

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Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/energy/news/perovskite-solar-cells-precise-seasoning/

Metal

HMS I/II 80:20 container price in Los Angeles holds steady

SteelOrbis has learned that the price range for containerized HMS I/II 80:20 scrap at Los Angeles ports has

Republished by Plato

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Information Provided By:

SteelOrbis Elektronik Pazaryeri A.Ş. (“SteelOrbis”)
19 Mayıs Mahallesi, Atatürk Caddesi
Şeref Yazgan İş Merkezi, No: 72, Kat: 7, D: 18
Kozyatağı – 34736
Istanbul, Turkey

Trade Registration Number : 541892
MERSİS Number : 0470048178400014
Customer Relations Officer : Sinem Alpkaya
Tel : +90 216 468 10 50
Fax : +90 216 386 41 08

This Information Form has been drawn up in order to provide information to the customer (“Customer”) who seeks a free trial on an electronic environment for the purpose of benefiting from the services offered by the SteelOrbis website at “www.steelorbis.com” prior to acceptance of the Membership Contract, and it allows the Customer to gain clear information on the terms and conditions of the membership to be established as well as to review the text of the Contract in question.

The following successive steps shall be taken in order to establish a free trial:

– The Customer selects the “Free Trial” option on the home page at https://www.steelorbis.com.
– The Customer provides all information requested in the “Free Trial Application” form displayed on the screen and confirms it.
– SteelOrbis sends an account activation e-mail to the e-mail address of the Customer provided in the application form.
– The Customer clicks on the activation link sent to his/her e-mail address and activates his/her account. The website Membership Contract is presented to the Customer during the account activation process.

Storage of the Membership Contract:

You can either save the Membership Contract on your computer or make print-outs of it for storage. The Membership Contract accepted and confirmed by the Customer is not kept by SteelOrbis. You can always get access to the standard Membership Contract displayed on the website. However, as amendments may be made to the standard Contract, it may include some variations in comparison with the text approved by you. Accordingly, it may not be possible for you to access on the website the text you originally approved.

Data entry errors:

The information you should provide for membership application and the fields you should fill in are indicated during each step of the operation. You are obliged to provide such information. If you leave the required fields blank, the system will issue a warning. Please fill in all necessary fields. Prior to the completion of the operation, all data entered by you in the previous step will be displayed once more. Please make sure that the information provided by you is accurate and complete before finally confirming the operation; any missing or incorrect information should be completed or corrected. Any amendment or correction on the information provided by you after the confirmation may be performed by means of website logins after the establishment of the membership.

Our confidentiality policy:

Please click here to review our confidentiality policy.

Invest w Mintos
Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-prices/steel-prices-market-analyses/scrap-and-raw-materials/hms-iii-8020-container-price-in-los-angeles-holds-steady-1195338.htm

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Metal

HMS I/II 80:20 container price in Los Angeles holds steady

SteelOrbis has learned that the price range for containerized HMS I/II 80:20 scrap at Los Angeles ports has

Republished by Plato

Published

on


Information Provided By:

SteelOrbis Elektronik Pazaryeri A.Ş. (“SteelOrbis”)
19 Mayıs Mahallesi, Atatürk Caddesi
Şeref Yazgan İş Merkezi, No: 72, Kat: 7, D: 18
Kozyatağı – 34736
Istanbul, Turkey

Trade Registration Number : 541892
MERSİS Number : 0470048178400014
Customer Relations Officer : Sinem Alpkaya
Tel : +90 216 468 10 50
Fax : +90 216 386 41 08

This Information Form has been drawn up in order to provide information to the customer (“Customer”) who seeks a free trial on an electronic environment for the purpose of benefiting from the services offered by the SteelOrbis website at “www.steelorbis.com” prior to acceptance of the Membership Contract, and it allows the Customer to gain clear information on the terms and conditions of the membership to be established as well as to review the text of the Contract in question.

The following successive steps shall be taken in order to establish a free trial:

– The Customer selects the “Free Trial” option on the home page at https://www.steelorbis.com.
– The Customer provides all information requested in the “Free Trial Application” form displayed on the screen and confirms it.
– SteelOrbis sends an account activation e-mail to the e-mail address of the Customer provided in the application form.
– The Customer clicks on the activation link sent to his/her e-mail address and activates his/her account. The website Membership Contract is presented to the Customer during the account activation process.

Storage of the Membership Contract:

You can either save the Membership Contract on your computer or make print-outs of it for storage. The Membership Contract accepted and confirmed by the Customer is not kept by SteelOrbis. You can always get access to the standard Membership Contract displayed on the website. However, as amendments may be made to the standard Contract, it may include some variations in comparison with the text approved by you. Accordingly, it may not be possible for you to access on the website the text you originally approved.

Data entry errors:

The information you should provide for membership application and the fields you should fill in are indicated during each step of the operation. You are obliged to provide such information. If you leave the required fields blank, the system will issue a warning. Please fill in all necessary fields. Prior to the completion of the operation, all data entered by you in the previous step will be displayed once more. Please make sure that the information provided by you is accurate and complete before finally confirming the operation; any missing or incorrect information should be completed or corrected. Any amendment or correction on the information provided by you after the confirmation may be performed by means of website logins after the establishment of the membership.

Our confidentiality policy:

Please click here to review our confidentiality policy.

Invest w Mintos
Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-prices/steel-prices-market-analyses/scrap-and-raw-materials/hms-iii-8020-container-price-in-los-angeles-holds-steady-1195338.htm

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Metal

HMS I/II 80:20 container price in Los Angeles holds steady

SteelOrbis has learned that the price range for containerized HMS I/II 80:20 scrap at Los Angeles ports has

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Information Provided By:

SteelOrbis Elektronik Pazaryeri A.Ş. (“SteelOrbis”)
19 Mayıs Mahallesi, Atatürk Caddesi
Şeref Yazgan İş Merkezi, No: 72, Kat: 7, D: 18
Kozyatağı – 34736
Istanbul, Turkey

Trade Registration Number : 541892
MERSİS Number : 0470048178400014
Customer Relations Officer : Sinem Alpkaya
Tel : +90 216 468 10 50
Fax : +90 216 386 41 08

This Information Form has been drawn up in order to provide information to the customer (“Customer”) who seeks a free trial on an electronic environment for the purpose of benefiting from the services offered by the SteelOrbis website at “www.steelorbis.com” prior to acceptance of the Membership Contract, and it allows the Customer to gain clear information on the terms and conditions of the membership to be established as well as to review the text of the Contract in question.

The following successive steps shall be taken in order to establish a free trial:

– The Customer selects the “Free Trial” option on the home page at https://www.steelorbis.com.
– The Customer provides all information requested in the “Free Trial Application” form displayed on the screen and confirms it.
– SteelOrbis sends an account activation e-mail to the e-mail address of the Customer provided in the application form.
– The Customer clicks on the activation link sent to his/her e-mail address and activates his/her account. The website Membership Contract is presented to the Customer during the account activation process.

Storage of the Membership Contract:

You can either save the Membership Contract on your computer or make print-outs of it for storage. The Membership Contract accepted and confirmed by the Customer is not kept by SteelOrbis. You can always get access to the standard Membership Contract displayed on the website. However, as amendments may be made to the standard Contract, it may include some variations in comparison with the text approved by you. Accordingly, it may not be possible for you to access on the website the text you originally approved.

Data entry errors:

The information you should provide for membership application and the fields you should fill in are indicated during each step of the operation. You are obliged to provide such information. If you leave the required fields blank, the system will issue a warning. Please fill in all necessary fields. Prior to the completion of the operation, all data entered by you in the previous step will be displayed once more. Please make sure that the information provided by you is accurate and complete before finally confirming the operation; any missing or incorrect information should be completed or corrected. Any amendment or correction on the information provided by you after the confirmation may be performed by means of website logins after the establishment of the membership.

Our confidentiality policy:

Please click here to review our confidentiality policy.

Invest w Mintos
Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-prices/steel-prices-market-analyses/scrap-and-raw-materials/hms-iii-8020-container-price-in-los-angeles-holds-steady-1195338.htm

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