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Miswiring the brain: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts cortical development by inducing an SCG10/stathmin-2 degradation pathway

Children exposed in utero to cannabis present permanent neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Psychoactive constituents from Cannabis spp., particularly Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), bind to cannabinoid receptors in the fetal brain. However, it is unknown whether THC can trigger a cannabinoid receptor-driven molecular cascade to disrupt neuronal specification. Here, we show that repeated THC exposure disrupts endocannabinoid signaling, particularly the temporal dynamics of CB1…

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Figure 7. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) promotes ectopic filopodiagenesis

A,A2 Transient transfection of cortical neurons with a phospho-mimetic EGFP-SCG10S62D/S73D mutant (SCG10-DD) (Westerlund et al, 2011) led to a decrease in the primary neurite length, an effect equivalent to that of THC. SCG10-DD overexpression, which largely outcompeted endogenous SCG10 (insets), rendered THC ineffective to modify neurite elongation (> 15 neurons/condition). Western analysis demonstrated a progressive increase in SCG10-DD protein expression in PC12 cells upon transient transfection(A2). Probing by an anti-GFP antibody differentiated endogenous SCG10 from overexpressed SCG10-DD. Note that SCG10-DD overexpression significantly reduced the endogenous SCG10 content (wild-type (WT) targets around ˜20 kDa). Membranes were stained with amido-back to control for equal protein loading. B–B2 siRNA knockdown of SCG10 expression phenocopied and blunted the effects of THC on neurite outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons (> 20 neurons/condition). C SCG10 levels decreased in cortical growth cone particles exposed to THC for 10 min. SCG10 isoforms were numbered (Shin et al, 2012). Gapdh served as a loading control. D, D1 In cultured cortical neurons, THC (10 min) allowed acetylated tubulin accumulation (arrowheads) and the formation of superfluous lamellipodium-like F-actin-rich cytoskeletal projections. Bar histograms of quantitative subcellular morphometry are shown in (D2). THC facilitated the morphological differentiation of growth cones (D3) including filopodiogenesis (> 10 observations/condition; D4) without affecting the size of individual growth cones (D5). Growth cone morphology was classified as described by (Morii et al, 2006). E, E1 Besides affecting the growth cone, THC acutely increased the formation and density of F-actin+ axial protrusions, likely filopodia, from distal neurite shafts. Data information: Data were expressed as means ± s.e.m. **< 0.01, *< 0.05; n.s. = non-significant. Scale bars, 20 μm (A), 10 μm (B, D,D1,E)

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24469251/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1z7zlNEMzQex5jriqkhCblNtckSEpT9xYlxxeymU_73UTETESY&fc=20200804213258&ff=20200811100328&v=2.11.5

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Northeast Kingdom Hemp – Organic CBD Products

Northeast Kingdom Hemp prides itself in practicing sustainable organic farming that produces the healthiest and most precise small-batch CBD possible. All of our products are grown directly on our farm. Using state of the art in-house extraction methods we then produce the cleanest, highest quality, oils.

Our in-house small batch C02 Extraction techniques capture the full power of hemp in every bottle. Our attention to quality yields CBD oils that are pure, great tasting, and teeming with naturally occurring phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids that are largely lost with more large scale industrial extraction methods.

ALL OF OUR CBD OILS ARE 100% USDA CERTIFIED ORGANIC

Because we perform the entire process from planting to bottling right here on  the farm, we know that every step is done right to give you the purest healthiest CBD oils available.

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Northeast Kingdom Hemp prides itself in practicing sustainable organic farming that produces the healthiest and most precise small-batch CBD possible. All of our products are grown directly on our farm. Using state of the art in-house extraction methods we then produce the cleanest, highest quality, oils.

Our in-house small batch C02 Extraction techniques capture the full power of hemp in every bottle. Our attention to quality yields CBD oils that are pure, great tasting, and teeming with naturally occurring phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids that are largely lost with more large scale industrial extraction methods.

ALL OF OUR CBD OILS ARE 100% USDA CERTIFIED ORGANIC

Because we perform the entire process from planting to bottling right here on  the farm, we know that every step is done right to give you the purest healthiest CBD oils available.

Source: https://nekhemp.com/blog/

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Why Our CBD Gummies Are So Popular

Our CBD gummies are on another level! We’ve heard about how other CBD Gummies don’t taste very good. However, we’ve managed to find the perfect balance between the right amount of CBD and taste. If you have a sweet tooth you’ll love these CBD Gummies among other reasons.

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Our CBD gummies are on another level! We’ve heard about how other CBD Gummies don’t taste very good. However, we’ve managed to find the perfect balance between the right amount of CBD and taste. If you have a sweet tooth you’ll love these CBD Gummies among other reasons.

What Do CBD Gummies Taste Like?

What Do CBD Gummies Taste Like?

A common question we get is what do our CBD Gummies taste like? The taste is a fruity mix with notes of sour candy. They come in worm shapes and each one has 50 mg of CBD. However, unlike other CBD Gummies we don’t compromise on the taste. We realized that not many people enjoy the Earthy-bitter flavor of CBD. Therefore, they are sweet and even without the CBD they taste amazing!

Side Note: These Gummies are not diabetic or vegan friendly. The reason we didn’t decide to go that route is because of the taste. CBD alone already provides a different flavor. Therefore, we wanted a product that people are already familiar with. This product is great for CBD newcomers.

How CBD Gummies Are Different

How CBD Gummies Are Different

Let’s face it, you probably don’t have much time for anything let alone taking in certain forms of CBD. You have to get the CBD that agrees with your lifestyle and for the person on the go our CBD Gummies are perfect. You simply open the package, throw a piece in your mouth and move on with your day. No questions, no preparations, and no need to carry any device around. You will also be free from any pressures on the duration it takes to consume CBD.

Some people who have issues with smoking or vaping their CBD find that CBD Edibles are equally as good. However, the main difference between ingesting your CBD VS. Vaping/Smoking is the absorption rate. Whenever you vape or smoke anything that product tends to enter into your system within minutes. Anything you eat or ingest can take between an hour to an hour and a half before you feel that product working.

CBD Gummies Will Not Get You High

Just like all of our CBD products – our Gummies are not meant to get you high. Yes, it takes longer for the CBD to hit your system this way; however, they are still non-psychoactive. All of our CBD products have below 0.03% THC so you’re not getting enough to produce a high. Also, our Gummies come from legally grown Hemp – not from Marijuana.

Another thing to consider is that even if you take the whole bag – it still won’t get you high. You might feel drowsy, upset stomach, or other unpleasant side effects. An important thing to note is that according to the World Health Organization (WHO) the toxic dose of CBD is 20,000 mg. A comfortable dosage that we recommend is 1 Gummy Worm, but dosages can vary depending on tolerance.

Drug Test

Although our CBD has about 0.03% of THC or less we get asked if you’ll pass a drug test. In short, you should be able to pass a drug test taking CBD Gummies but it can vary depending on the brand. Our lab test results for our CBD Gummies shows that our CBD has Non-Detectable traces of THC. However, if you’re buying a different brand of Edibles you’ll want to be sure you’re getting low to undetectable traces of CBD.

If you’re worried about passing a drug test we recommend not taking CBD for a while. This is of course assuming you know when you’re going to be drug tested. Also, CBD Isolate typically has less traces of THC than Full Spectrum CBD. This is because CBD Isolate separates the CBD from all of the other cannabinoids. This produces a more pure form of CBD which our Gummies use.

Conclusion

Why Our CBD Gummies Are So Popular

Our Gummies are among the most popular products that we carry. Aside from the convenience and strength factors; we believe the taste of these Gummies is one of the biggest reasons for their popularity. Although, they can’t get you high, we’re sure you’ll love the experience. If you are new to CBD this is the best beginners product because it gives you the right amount of CBD.

Source: https://savagecbd.com/blogs/savage-cbd/why-our-cbd-gummies-are-so-popular

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Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Sucrose synthase from the Stem of Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

Sucrose synthase is a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism as it saves an important part of sucrose energy in the uridine-5′-diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) molecule. As such it is also involved in the synthesis of fundamental molecules such as callose and cellulose, the latter being present in all cell walls of plant cells and therefore also in the gelatinous cell walls of sclerenchyma cells such as bast fibers. Given the importance of these cells in plants of economic interest such as hemp, flax…

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. 2021 Jan 16;22(2):E851.

doi: 10.3390/ijms22020851.

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Lavinia Mareri et al. Int J Mol Sci. .

Abstract

Sucrose synthase is a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism as it saves an important part of sucrose energy in the uridine-5′-diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) molecule. As such it is also involved in the synthesis of fundamental molecules such as callose and cellulose, the latter being present in all cell walls of plant cells and therefore also in the gelatinous cell walls of sclerenchyma cells such as bast fibers. Given the importance of these cells in plants of economic interest such as hemp, flax and nettle, in this work we have studied the occurrence of Sucrose synthase in nettle stems by analyzing its distribution between the cytosol, membranes and cell wall. We have therefore developed a purification protocol that can allow the analysis of various characteristics of the enzyme. In nettle, Sucrose synthase is encoded by different genes and each form of the enzyme could be subjected to different post-translational modifications. Therefore, by two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis, we have also traced the phosphorylation profile of Sucrose synthase isoforms in the various cell compartments. This information paves the way for further investigation of Sucrose synthase in plants such as nettle, which is both economically important, but also difficult to study.

Keywords: Sucrose synthase; Urtica dioica; bast fibers; phosphorylation; protein purification.

Grant support

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33467001/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=18gXB4q-CV5o0kQDSCt3HqwNcsXbn1PxqekJlWJaIbT8zAG16G&fc=20200804213200&ff=20210120171258&v=2.14.2

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