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Low doses of widely consumed cannabinoids (cannabidiol and cannabidivarin) cause DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human-derived cells

Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidivarin (CBDV) are natural cannabinoids which are consumed in increasing amounts worldwide in cannabis extracts, as they prevent epilepsy, anxiety, and seizures. It was claimed that they may be useful in cancer therapy and have anti-inflammatory properties. Adverse long-term effects of these drugs (induction of cancer and infertility) which are related to damage of the genetic material have not been investigated. Therefore, we studied their DNA-damaging properties in…

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. 2019 Jan;93(1):179-188.

doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2322-9. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

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Chiara Russo et al. Arch Toxicol. .

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Abstract

Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidivarin (CBDV) are natural cannabinoids which are consumed in increasing amounts worldwide in cannabis extracts, as they prevent epilepsy, anxiety, and seizures. It was claimed that they may be useful in cancer therapy and have anti-inflammatory properties. Adverse long-term effects of these drugs (induction of cancer and infertility) which are related to damage of the genetic material have not been investigated. Therefore, we studied their DNA-damaging properties in human-derived cell lines under conditions which reflect the exposure of consumers. Both compounds induced DNA damage in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) experiments in a human liver cell line (HepG2) and in buccal-derived cells (TR146) at low levels (≥ 0.2 µM). Results of micronucleus (MN) cytome assays showed that the damage leads to formation of MNi which reflect chromosomal aberrations and leads to nuclear buds and bridges which are a consequence of gene amplifications and dicentric chromosomes. Additional experiments indicate that these effects are caused by oxidative base damage and that liver enzymes (S9) increase the genotoxic activity of both compounds. Our findings show that low concentrations of CBD and CBDV cause damage of the genetic material in human-derived cells. Furthermore, earlier studies showed that they cause chromosomal aberrations and MN in bone marrow of mice. Fixation of damage of the DNA in the form of chromosomal damage is generally considered to be essential in the multistep process of malignancy, therefore the currently available data are indicative for potential carcinogenic properties of the cannabinoids.

Keywords: CBD; CBDV; Genotoxicity; MN assay; SCGE assay.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors state that they have no conflict of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

Chemical structure of the test compounds. a ∆9-THC (CAS Nr. 1972-08-3), b CBD (CAS Nr. 13956-29-1), c CBDV (CAS Nr. 24274-48-4) is a propyl derivative of CBD

Fig. 2

Fig. 2

a, b Induction of DNA damage by CBD and CBDV in a human-derived liver cell line (HepG2). The cells were treated with different concentrations of the test compounds for 3 and 24 h. Methanol was used as a solvent control [for 3 h CBD: 1.70% (v/v) and CBDV: 1.55% (v/v); for 24 h CBD: 0.56% (v/v) for CBDV: 0.52% (v/v)]. Hydrogen peroxide (50 µM) was used as a positive control (the cells were treated for 5 min on ice) and induced clear positive effects (26.57 ± 3.64% DNA in tail). Bars indicate means ± SD of results obtained with two parallel cultures per experiment (from each culture two slides were made and 50 cells were evaluated per slide). Stars indicate statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA). All statistical calculations are based on comparisons between results which were obtained with cells which had been treated with the test compounds and results which were obtained with corresponding solvent controls

Fig. 3

Fig. 3

a, b Induction of DNA damage by CBD and CBDV in a human-derived buccal cell line (TR146). The cells were treated with different concentrations of the test compounds for 3 h. Methanol was used as solvent control [CBD: 1.70% (v/v) and CBDV: 1.55% (v/v)]. Hydrogen peroxide (50 µM) was used as a positive control (the cells were treated for 5 min on ice). The peroxide induced clear positive effects (20.12 ± 1.84% DNA in tail). Bars indicate means ± SD of results obtained with two parallel cultures per experiment (from each culture two slides were made and 50 cells were evaluated per slide). Stars indicate statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA). All statistical calculations are based on comparisons between results which were obtained with cells which had been treated with the test compounds and results which were obtained with corresponding solvent controls

Fig. 4

Fig. 4

a, b Impact of liver enzyme homogenate on the DNA-damaging activity of CBD and CBDV in TR146 cells. The cells were treated with 2.0 µM of the cannabinoids and in parallel with liver enzyme homogenate (for details see “Materials and methods”). Bars indicate means ± SD of results obtained with two parallel cultures per experiment (from each culture two slides were made and 50 cells were evaluated per slide). Stars indicate statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05, Two-tailed paired t test). All statistical calculations are based on comparisons between results which were obtained with cells which had been treated with the test compounds and results which were obtained with corresponding solvent controls

Fig. 5

Fig. 5

a, b Formation of oxidized purines in HepG2 cells by CBD and CBDV. The cells were exposed to the test compounds for 3 h. Subsequently, the nuclei were isolated after lysis and treated with FPG or with the corresponding buffers before electrophoresis for 30 min. Bars indicate means ± SD of results obtained with two cultures per experimental point. From each culture, two slides were made and 50 cells were evaluated per slide. Stars indicate statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA). All statistical calculations are based on comparisons between results which were obtained with cells which had been treated with the test compounds and results which were obtained with corresponding solvent controls

Fig. 6

Fig. 6

a, b Formation of oxidized pyrimidines in HepG2 cells by CBD and CBDV. The cells were exposed to the test compounds for 3 h. Subsequently, the nuclei were isolated after lysis and treated with ENDO III or with the corresponding buffers before electrophoresis for 45 min. Bars indicate means ± SD of results obtained with two cultures per experimental point. From each culture, two slides were made and 50 cells were evaluated per slide. Stars indicate statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA). All statistical calculations are based on comparisons between results which were obtained with cells which had been treated with the test compounds and results which were obtained with corresponding solvent controls

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References

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Does cbd/cbg interact with prozac?

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I've read that the ssri prozac and cbd/cbg/thc are metabolized by the same enzyme in the liver and can cause the ssri to build up in the blood stream and I was wondering if this is a proven fact. It's been very difficult to find research on this. I started taking Prozac but I want to smoke too. If what I've read is true then smoking or consuming any cannabis product will hurt me more than it helps and that means no more cannabis anything..

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Can CBD oil cause heartburn?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/k1t13y/can_cbd_oil_cause_heartburn/

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Heartland

Not All Hemp Products Are Created Equal

What is the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?

Both Hemp and Marijuana are in the cannabis family. Human intervention has produced variation within the species in terms of THC and CBD levels. Simply put, hemp is designated by a man-made definition of THC levels at or below 0.3%. Marijuana is always harvested from female plants and typically has high THC levels with little to no CBD, although some strains can contain verifying levels of CBD/THC ratios. Hemp has over 10,000 known uses, which can be made from both the female or male plant depending on the desired product. Mana Artisan Botanics uses only female hemp plants in our products, with lab testing guaranteeing below 0.3% THC levels.

Hemp extract is the phytocannabinoid concentrate, created through some form of extraction process, most commonly either with supercritical carbon dioxide or ethanol. The extract’s potency will depend on the levels of cannabinoids in the plant, so each batch of extract will have different levels of cannabinoids.

Why should you care where your hemp is sourced from?

The demand for hemp extracts is rapidly increasing in the U.S. However, there is still limited supply of U.S.-grown hemp, resulting in high prices that cannot compete against imported hemp extract from places like China or Eastern Europe. Consumers seeking quality products may find a lack of transparency when it comes to the origin of the hemp extract in their products. And unfortunately, there is limited data behind the volume and quality control behind these imported hemp extracts.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, we take great care to source high-quality hemp that is grown in the U.S., with the specific intention to facilitate health and wellness.

Do hemp cultivation methods matter?

In the cannabis industry much of what is grown, unless it is organic, is sprayed with varying levels of pesticides and fungicides. Most consumers don’t realize this is a common practice. Given the increasing demand for hemp and cannabis, many conventional farmers are transitioning their fields to these high value crops. Yet, hemp’s cultivation environment is critical as it can act as a bio-remediation crop, absorbing contaminants from the soil while it grows. If the hemp was grown in poor or misused soil, that plant might contain toxins you won’t want to ingest.

This is why at Mana Artisan Botanics, we source our CBD-rich hemp extract only from farms that have never had any toxic agriculture on the land or use any harmful pesticides or fungicides. All our products are purity and potency tested at multiple lab facilities such as Steep Hill Labs Hawaii and Hawaii Pharm Labs for cannabinoid levels as well as pesticide residue, heavy metals and other contaminants. State of the art testing methods are used and THC levels are guaranteed to be under the federal limit of 0.3%. If you want to review the lab results, please contact us!

Do different hemp strains deliver varying results?

Many of the hemp products on the market derive their CBDs as a by-product from other types of hemp varieties such as fiber or seed for hemp food products. The levels of CBD-rich hemp extract in these products are lower and lack the diverse spectrum of cannabinoids one would ideally want for an “entourage effect” that delivers the possible synergies made available by whole plant therapies.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, the hemp we source is grown with great care to facilitate high levels of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids.

What is the entourage effect?

The “entourage effect” or “plant synergy” is the idea that cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids in cannabis interact synergistically to magnify the therapeutic benefits of the plant’s individual components—so that the medicinal impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts.

Are whole plant extracts superior to single-compound alternatives?

Do you know the difference between isolates and whole plant extracts? “Whole plant extract” has a wide range of cannabinoids. Most scientists agree that there is between 80-120 cannabinoids plus additional terpenes, in addition to the better know CBD and THC compounds. With a “whole plant” extract you are getting access to the much wider spectrum of cannabinoids in your hemp infusion for that entourage effect.Isolates are not known to be effective as a whole plant extracts for that very reason. Additionally, isolates can be over processed, sometimes with added chemicals for purification.

Mana Artisan Botanics uses “whole plant extracts” only, with full range of cannabinoids making our infusions superior to single-compound alternatives.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Turmeric in our hemp infusions?

Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the most intensely researched natural products available today. With over 6,000 peer-reviewed studies, including clinical and scientific research, turmeric is shown to have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. We add turmeric in our hemp infusions to further augment the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Passionflower in our Hawaiian Sleep Hemp Tincture?

Passionflower extract has been shown in studies to be helpful for relieving general anxiety and improving sleep quality. We add passionflower in our sleep hemp tincture to further augment the anti-anxiety effects of cannabinoids.

Republished by Plato

Published

on

What is the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?

Both Hemp and Marijuana are in the cannabis family. Human intervention has produced variation within the species in terms of THC and CBD levels. Simply put, hemp is designated by a man-made definition of THC levels at or below 0.3%. Marijuana is always harvested from female plants and typically has high THC levels with little to no CBD, although some strains can contain verifying levels of CBD/THC ratios. Hemp has over 10,000 known uses, which can be made from both the female or male plant depending on the desired product. Mana Artisan Botanics uses only female hemp plants in our products, with lab testing guaranteeing below 0.3% THC levels.

Hemp extract is the phytocannabinoid concentrate, created through some form of extraction process, most commonly either with supercritical carbon dioxide or ethanol. The extract’s potency will depend on the levels of cannabinoids in the plant, so each batch of extract will have different levels of cannabinoids.

Why should you care where your hemp is sourced from?

The demand for hemp extracts is rapidly increasing in the U.S. However, there is still limited supply of U.S.-grown hemp, resulting in high prices that cannot compete against imported hemp extract from places like China or Eastern Europe. Consumers seeking quality products may find a lack of transparency when it comes to the origin of the hemp extract in their products. And unfortunately, there is limited data behind the volume and quality control behind these imported hemp extracts.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, we take great care to source high-quality hemp that is grown in the U.S., with the specific intention to facilitate health and wellness.

Do hemp cultivation methods matter?

In the cannabis industry much of what is grown, unless it is organic, is sprayed with varying levels of pesticides and fungicides. Most consumers don’t realize this is a common practice. Given the increasing demand for hemp and cannabis, many conventional farmers are transitioning their fields to these high value crops. Yet, hemp’s cultivation environment is critical as it can act as a bio-remediation crop, absorbing contaminants from the soil while it grows. If the hemp was grown in poor or misused soil, that plant might contain toxins you won’t want to ingest.

This is why at Mana Artisan Botanics, we source our CBD-rich hemp extract only from farms that have never had any toxic agriculture on the land or use any harmful pesticides or fungicides. All our products are purity and potency tested at multiple lab facilities such as Steep Hill Labs Hawaii and Hawaii Pharm Labs for cannabinoid levels as well as pesticide residue, heavy metals and other contaminants. State of the art testing methods are used and THC levels are guaranteed to be under the federal limit of 0.3%. If you want to review the lab results, please contact us!

Do different hemp strains deliver varying results?

Many of the hemp products on the market derive their CBDs as a by-product from other types of hemp varieties such as fiber or seed for hemp food products. The levels of CBD-rich hemp extract in these products are lower and lack the diverse spectrum of cannabinoids one would ideally want for an “entourage effect” that delivers the possible synergies made available by whole plant therapies.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, the hemp we source is grown with great care to facilitate high levels of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids.

What is the entourage effect?

The “entourage effect” or “plant synergy” is the idea that cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids in cannabis interact synergistically to magnify the therapeutic benefits of the plant’s individual components—so that the medicinal impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts.

Are whole plant extracts superior to single-compound alternatives?

Do you know the difference between isolates and whole plant extracts? “Whole plant extract” has a wide range of cannabinoids. Most scientists agree that there is between 80-120 cannabinoids plus additional terpenes, in addition to the better know CBD and THC compounds. With a “whole plant” extract you are getting access to the much wider spectrum of cannabinoids in your hemp infusion for that entourage effect.Isolates are not known to be effective as a whole plant extracts for that very reason. Additionally, isolates can be over processed, sometimes with added chemicals for purification.

Mana Artisan Botanics uses “whole plant extracts” only, with full range of cannabinoids making our infusions superior to single-compound alternatives.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Turmeric in our hemp infusions?

Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the most intensely researched natural products available today. With over 6,000 peer-reviewed studies, including clinical and scientific research, turmeric is shown to have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. We add turmeric in our hemp infusions to further augment the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Passionflower in our Hawaiian Sleep Hemp Tincture?

Passionflower extract has been shown in studies to be helpful for relieving general anxiety and improving sleep quality. We add passionflower in our sleep hemp tincture to further augment the anti-anxiety effects of cannabinoids.

Source: https://www.finallycbd.shop/not-all-hemp-products-are-created-equal

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