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Long-term monitoring of drug consumption patterns in a large-sized European city using wastewater-based epidemiology: Comparison of two sampling schemes for the assessment of multiannual trends

A comprehensive study aimed at monitoring of temporal variability of illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine and cannabis) and therapeutic opiate methadone in a large-sized European city using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was conducted in the city of Zagreb, Croatia, during an 8-year period (2009-2016). The study addressed the impact of different sampling schemes on the assessment of temporal drug consumption patterns, in particular multiannual consumption…

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A comprehensive study aimed at monitoring of temporal variability of illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine and cannabis) and therapeutic opiate methadone in a large-sized European city using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was conducted in the city of Zagreb, Croatia, during an 8-year period (2009-2016). The study addressed the impact of different sampling schemes on the assessment of temporal drug consumption patterns, in particular multiannual consumption trends and documented the possible errors associated with the one-week sampling scheme. The highest drug consumption prevalence was determined for cannabis (from 59 ± 18 to 156 ± 37 doses/day/1000 inhabitants 15-64 years), followed by heroin (from 11 ± 10 to 71 ± 19 doses/day/1000 inhabitants 15-64 years), cocaine (from 8.3 ± 0.9 to 23 ± 4.0 doses/day/1000 inhabitants 15-64 years) and amphetamine (from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 21 ± 6.1 doses/day/1000 inhabitants 15-64 years) whereas the consumption of MDMA was comparatively lower (from 0.18 ± 0.08 to 2.7 doses ±0.7 doses/day/1000 inhabitants 15-64 years). The drug consumption patterns were characterized by clearly enhanced weekend and Christmas season consumption of stimulating drugs (cocaine, MDMA and amphetamine) and somewhat lower summer consumption of almost all drugs. Pronounced multiannual consumption trends were determined for most of the illicit drugs. The investigated 8-year period was characterized by a marked increase of the consumption of pure cocaine (1.6-fold), THC (2.7-fold), amphetamine (16-fold) and MDMA (15-fold) and a concomitant decrease (2.3-fold) of the consumption of pure heroin. The heroin consumption decrease was associated with an increase of methadone consumption (1.4-fold), which can be linked to its use in the heroin substitution therapy. The estimated number of average methadone doses consumed in the city of Zagreb was in a good agreement with the prescription data on treated opioid addicts in Croatia.

Keywords: Illicit drugs; LC-MS/MS; Multiannual trends; Opioids; Wastewater-based epidemiology; Zagreb.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30086499/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1854v2hhZntXmjLwJ2c8ICqk5dHszkjKaegUwgxvTg53irEIHf&fc=20200804212743&ff=20200824143226&v=2.11.5

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My experience with CBD

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I will not spend an hour summarizing my mental health. I will just say that for years I have been plagued by depression, anxiety, antisocial feelings, and over the past year or so a feeling of brain fog. I was diagnosed with ADD as a child and they decided I didn’t have it 2 years later but I know I likely still do. I decided to finally give CBD from the local Rite aid a try. After 4 days I can say that the brain fog is gone. A week ago I couldn’t even explain the feeling that plagued me. I still don’t feel anything close to a normal person but I can say that I have a better ability to process my brain that I haven’t felt in years. I reccomend anyone who is interested give CBD a try. I only hope the clowns in our country can get past the marijuana BS that they try to strong along and connect to CBD.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jlasaf/my_experience_with_cbd/

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Anyone tried 10DollarCartridge CBD carts?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jl95ga/anyone_tried_10dollarcartridge_cbd_carts/

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Anxiety and ADD?

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I went to a doctor to try and sort out my anxiety issues, they are becoming a bit much to self manage. They put me on Prozac and it was a complete nightmare, the side effects were horrible, not to mention all of the unspoken rules that came along with it, no drinking, no ibuprofen, and countless others.

I am a regular THC user and that seems to help control my anxiety in the evenings but I obviously do not use at work which is where the problem lies.

I have issues with general anxiety, social anxiety, and add. Can CBD help me? How do I know how much to take, and do I have to keep taking it as in does it wear off ever couple hours? I dont know anything about this stuff but I know that Prozac is NOT for me!!!

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jl7gfk/anxiety_and_add/

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