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Immunological properties of Andean starch films are independent of their nanometric roughness and stiffness

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Starch is a natural material extracted from roots, seeds, stems and tubers of different plants. It can be processed as a thermoplastic to produce a variety promising products for biomedical applications, including foams, sheets and films. In the present work, we investigated the immunological properties of microfilms prepared with starches extracted from six different types of Andean potatoes and their relationship with the different film-surface features. We confirmed the biocompatibility of all the films using THP-1 human monocytes, noticing only slight decrease in cell viability in two of the tested starches. We also analyzed pro-inflammatory cytokine release and immune cell surface receptor modulation on THP-1 plated onto the films. Our data show differences in the immunological profile of the same cells cultured onto the different starch films. Furthermore, we examined whether the dissimilar stiffness or the nanometric roughness of the films might influence the immune stimulation of the THP-1 monocytes. Our results demonstrate no correlation between cultured THP-1 immune activation and surface film characteristics. We conclude that different Andean native potato starch films have specific ability to interact with cell membranes of immune cells, conceivably due to the different spatial localization of amylose and amylopectin in the diverse starches.

This article originally appeared in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 75 2015, Pages 460-466.

Sign up or log in to your free Materials Today account to download the full article.

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Sign up or log in to your free Materials Today account to download the full article.

Starch is a natural material extracted from roots, seeds, stems and tubers of different plants. It can be processed as a thermoplastic to produce a variety promising products for biomedical applications, including foams, sheets and films. In the present work, we investigated the immunological properties of microfilms prepared with starches extracted from six different types of Andean potatoes and their relationship with the different film-surface features. We confirmed the biocompatibility of all the films using THP-1 human monocytes, noticing only slight decrease in cell viability in two of the tested starches. We also analyzed pro-inflammatory cytokine release and immune cell surface receptor modulation on THP-1 plated onto the films. Our data show differences in the immunological profile of the same cells cultured onto the different starch films. Furthermore, we examined whether the dissimilar stiffness or the nanometric roughness of the films might influence the immune stimulation of the THP-1 monocytes. Our results demonstrate no correlation between cultured THP-1 immune activation and surface film characteristics. We conclude that different Andean native potato starch films have specific ability to interact with cell membranes of immune cells, conceivably due to the different spatial localization of amylose and amylopectin in the diverse starches.

This article originally appeared in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 75 2015, Pages 460-466.

Sign up or log in to your free Materials Today account to download the full article.

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/biomaterials/features/immunological-properties-of-andean-starch-films/

Metal

Primetals, Midrex to supply world’s largest HBI Plant to Mikhailovsky HBI

Mikhailovsky HBI has signed a contract with Primetals Technologies and Midrex Technologies for the supply of a new HBI plant.

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UK-based plantmaker Primetals Technologies has announced that Russia-based Mikhailovsky HBI, which was jointly established by Mikhailovsky GOK, part of Russia-based Metalloinvest, and Metalloinvest’s holding company USM, has signed a contract with Primetals Technologies and its consortium partner US-based Midrex Technologies, Inc. for the supply of a new hot briquetted iron (HBI) plant to be established in Zheleznogorsk in Russia’s Kursk region. The plant is designed to produce 2.08 million mt of HBI per year. With the latest design features, the plant will be the largest HBI plant in the world and will be able to reduce energy consumption and environmental impact. The contract includes engineering, supplies and advisory services.

The investment in the construction of the plant is estimated at over RUB 40 billion excluding VAT. The project will create around 400 highly qualified jobs in Zheleznogorsk. The feed for the new HBI plant will consist of pellets produced from Mikhailovsky GOK iron ore.

The commissioning of the plant is scheduled to be in the first half of 2024.

“Mikhailovsky HBI project will help fill the growing demand for low carbon metallics that our industry desperately needs,” Stephen Montague, CEO of Midrex, said.

Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-news/latest-news/primetals-midrex-to-supply-worlds-largest-hbi-plant-to-mikhailovsky-hbi-1188258.htm

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Metal

European aluminum market under duress

There is not a lot of chatter in the press about this yet, but speak to producers and consumers and you will hear plenty of complaints about the European aluminum market. Both flat rolled and…

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E.U. flag

Andrey Kuzmin/Adobe Stack

There is not a lot of chatter in the press about this yet, but speak to producers and consumers and you will hear plenty of complaints about the European aluminum market.

Both flat rolled and extruded products are facing serious supply issues. However, whether they will be short-lived or prove more persistent is not yet clear.

Are you under pressure to generate aluminum cost savings? Make sure you are following these five best practices

European aluminum market challenges

On flat rolled, manufacturing has not bounced back with the vengeance some as some hoped. However, it has recovered quite strongly in some sectors. Automakers and consumer durables have sought to catch up from the first half of last year, which saw a collapse in demand and output.

Automotive manufacturers, in particular, are struggling to get enough material. This comes despite some car output slowing because of a lack of semiconductors. Hard alloy 5000 series sheet deliveries are out to July-August production at some plants. Extended lead times and rising LME prices — now above $2,200 per metric ton this week — are encouraging distributors to overorder. In short, this is further exacerbating the problem.

Extrusion confusion

If anything, the position with extrusions is even worse.

The loss or denial of Chinese supply as a result of countervailing duties has, as intended, pushed demand onto domestic suppliers. There appears to be a shortage of metal right from the primary ingot end of the supply chain.

Billet casters are complaining they can’t get enough ingot. As a result, they are putting extrusion clients on allocation or, at a minimum, advising they will be able to meet their contractual quantities but no more.

In conversations with MetalMiner, extrusion mills have advised they are looking outside of Europe for billet supplies. Some have said they are looking to the Middle East and even Asia.

As a consequence, billet premiums have been rising. Extrusion mills have found their margins under pressure, as the market has tried to resist price rises for any more than the increase in LME base costs.

Even imports, though, are not a quick fix. Billet casters in the Middle East are said to be on 12-week lead times ex-mill before shipment is taken into account.

Meanwhile, an extremely tight shipping market is hindering imports from Asia. Freight premiums are double what they were last year. In addition, container availability is limited.

Whether this proves to be a relatively short rise remains to be seen.

But, set against a backdrop of rising commodity prices, such market tightness tends to be self-fulfilling. It encourages the supply chain to overorder or bring forward orders in the anticipation they will beat price rises or secure tonnage that could become scarce in months to come.

That increasing demand has caught the supply market unawares.

The situation could get worse before it gets better.

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Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/agmetalminer/~3/5EX9NMYni9w/

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Metal

Microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) composite nanolattices with ultrahigh toughness and cyclability

Abstract: Three-dimensional nanolattices have recently emerged as an effective strategy to achieve high strength at low densities, by harnessing the combination of rationally designed topologies and nanoscale size effects [1][2][3][4][5]. However, most metallic and ceramic nanolattices show an ineludible deterioration of mechanical properties upon repeated loading due to localized brittle fracture. Here, by development and deposition of CoCrNiTi0.1 microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) with extra low stacking fault energy, we fabricated ultratough MEA-coated nanolattices that can exhibit unprecedented surface wrinkling under compression. Particularly, nanolattices with alloy film thickness?∼?30?nm can repeatedly withstand strains exceeding 50% with negligible strut fracture, while the elastic polymer core promotes recoverability and structural integrity. Furthermore, owing to the high strength of the metallic film, our MEA composite nanolattices exhibited high energy absorption (up to 60?MJ?m−3) and specific strength (up to 0.1?MPa?kg−1?m3), offering a plethora of robust micro/nano-mechanical and functional applications.

Microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) composite nanolattices with ultrahigh toughness and cyclability
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Abstract: Three-dimensional nanolattices have recently emerged as an effective strategy to achieve high strength at low densities, by harnessing the combination of rationally designed topologies and nanoscale size effects [1][2][3][4][5]. However, most metallic and ceramic nanolattices show an ineludible deterioration of mechanical properties upon repeated loading due to localized brittle fracture. Here, by development and deposition of CoCrNiTi0.1 microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) with extra low stacking fault energy, we fabricated ultratough MEA-coated nanolattices that can exhibit unprecedented surface wrinkling under compression. Particularly, nanolattices with alloy film thickness?∼?30?nm can repeatedly withstand strains exceeding 50% with negligible strut fracture, while the elastic polymer core promotes recoverability and structural integrity. Furthermore, owing to the high strength of the metallic film, our MEA composite nanolattices exhibited high energy absorption (up to 60?MJ?m−3) and specific strength (up to 0.1?MPa?kg−1?m3), offering a plethora of robust micro/nano-mechanical and functional applications.

Microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) composite nanolattices with ultrahigh toughness and cyclability

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/amorphous/articles/s1369702120303576/

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