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Illicit drug consumption estimated by wastewater analysis in different districts of Milan: A case study

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Wastewater analysis is a new approach developed to estimate illicit drug (ID) consumption in large communities, such as a city. We tested the ability of this approach to detect differences in consumption in different districts of a city.

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Introduction and aims: Wastewater analysis is a new approach developed to estimate illicit drug (ID) consumption in large communities, such as a city. We tested the ability of this approach to detect differences in consumption in different districts of a city.

Design and methods: Consumption of cocaine, heroin, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (cannabis active principle), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy was estimated by analysis of selected drug excretion residues in composite 24 h samples of untreated urban wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from the inlet of the three main Milan wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), each serving a district of the city (west, center and east). In each WWTP, samples were taken daily for seven consecutive days in November 2010 and March 2011.

Results: We observed significant differences of ID consumption (expressed as mg/day/1000 inhabitants) among districts: consumption of some ID was significantly higher in the eastern district (P < 0.01 for THC, P < 0.001 for cocaine and P < 0.0001 for heroin by one-way analysis of variance), while consumption of methamphetamine and amphetamine was higher in the central area (P < 0.0001). Overall, from 2010 to 2011, ID consumption decreased in all the districts, in line with a recent population survey showing decreases from 25 to 55% in the annual prevalence of ID users in Italy.

Discussion and conclusions: This approach may help to detect ID consumption in different districts of a city and may be useful for planning interventions aimed at specific city areas and substances.

Keywords: Italy; consumption; illicit drug; tandem mass spectrometry; wastewater.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25545943/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1854v2hhZntXmjLwJ2c8ICqk5dHszkjKaegUwgxvTg53irEIHf&fc=20200804212743&ff=20200813151351&v=2.11.5

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NV Farms contact info?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jl2ulg/nv_farms_contact_info/

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Hydro BAOX – WNCCBD

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jl284u/hydro_baox_wnccbd/

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Get Ready For The Cannabis Cup Arizona: People’s Choice Edition

Get ready, Arizona!

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High Times, the most recognizable name in cannabis, announced today that Arizona will be the next stop in its series of Cannabis Cup: People’s Choice Edition competitions, with crowd-sourced judging beginning in December. The events, which began this spring in response to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on large gatherings, seek to identify and acknowledge the best cannabis products available in states with legal marijuana.

The Cannabis Cup Arizona: People’s Choice Edition will be presented in partnership with Tempe-based Harvest Health & Recreation. To comply with current regulations, the event will feature medical marijuana products only. All products must be grown and produced in Arizona at a facility licensed by the Arizona Department of Health Services and be in compliance with all AZDHS rules.

The High Times Cannabis Cup Arizona: People’s Choice Edition will feature products from  10 different categories, including indica, sativa, hybrid, and sun-grown flower, pre-rolls, Non-Solvent Concentrates & Solvent Concentrates, vape pens & cartridges, and edibles split into Gummies/Candies and Baked Goods/Other. Entry quantity requirements are 228 one-gram units of flower, 228 pre-rolls, 228 vape pens or cartridges, 228 half-gram units of concentrates, or 60 units of edibles. Entry fees are $500 for one entry, $250 per entry for two entries, and High Times will waive all entry fees for three or more entries.

The event will be the first-ever Cannabis Cup that is open to the Arizona public and will see the largest pool of judges in the state’s history, providing an ideal way for brands to get their products into the hands of discerning medical marijuana patients. Because the event is not a blind competition, it allows entrants to submit their products with the same branding, packaging, and information customers will see in the dispensaries. And with a pool of judges from across the state, competitors will have the opportunity to receive valuable product feedback directly from consumers.

Judging For Cannabis Cup Arizona: People’s Choice Edition Begins In December!

Competitors will be able to submit their entries for the Cannabis Cup Arizona: People’s Choice Edition during the intake period in Phoenix from December 7 through 9. Judging kits will be available to registered medical marijuana patients at select Harvest dispensaries across Arizona from December 17  through February 3 which is also the timeframe for judges to submit their ratings. The competition’s winners will be announced via a digital awards ceremony scheduled for February 7, 2021.

The Cannabis Cup Arizona: People’s Choice Edition won’t be the only chance for members of the state’s cannabis community to make their opinions known this autumn. On November 3, registered voters in the state will have the opportunity to approve Prop. 207, a measure that would legalize marijuana for use by adults. 

High Times announced in March that it was taking its series of cannabis competitions online in response to the coronavirus outbreak. The inaugural High Times Hemp Cup, which had been scheduled to take place as a traditional in-person event in Austin, Texas, was instead held online on April 4, recognizing winners in eight categories. The events have continued through the summer, making additional stops in Colorado, Oklahoma, and Illinois, where results will be announced on September 27. Judging kits for the Cannabis Cup Oregon: People’s Choice Edition, delayed by the fires that have been ravaging the West Coast this summer, will be available in late October, with results scheduled to be announced on December 8.

Source: https://hightimes.com/events/cannabis-cup/cannabis-cup-arizona-peoples-choice-edition/

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