Connect with us


Gut Dysbiosis, Depression & the Endocannabinoid System

Gut dysbiosis leads to decreased endocannabinoid signaling and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. But dietary or probiotic interventions can mitigate stress-induced depressive syndromes.
Republished by Plato



Living inside each of us are hundreds of species of bacteria that comprise the gut microbiome, which has a huge impact on our well-being, affecting many physiological processes, including our immunity, metabolism, and neurological function. Medical scientists have shown that an imbalance in the gut microbiome, known as dysbiosis, can lead to depression and other adverse health outcomes. But the specific molecular pathways that link gut dysbiosis to mood disorders is still largely unchartered territory.

A recent report by French scientists in Nature Communications (Chevalier, 2020) breaks new ground in exploring how the endocannabinoid system mediates the impact of gut microbiota on mood and brain function. This paper builds upon previous research into the pathophysiology of depression that focuses on changes in the hippocampus, an area of the brain where cannabinoid (CB1) receptors are concentrated.

CB1 receptors regulate neurogenesis – the creation of new brain cells – in the hippocampus. And the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain is considered a hallmark of clinical depression.

Several studies indicate that activation of CB1 receptor signaling produces antidepressant effects by stimulating neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are both neurogenic compounds that promote the formation of neurons in the adult brain. Physical exercise also boosts neurogenesis by priming the endocannabinoid system – whereas chronic stress has the opposite effect.

Chronic stress, a risk factor for many diseases, has been shown to decrease cannabinoid signaling and neurogenesis in the brain. Alterations in gut microbiota composition following chronic stress are also well documented.

Mouse Poop

In an effort to shed light on the mechanisms whereby chronic stress induces dysbiosis, researchers at the Pasteur Institute in Paris transplanted gut microbiota from a stressed-out, depressed mouse to naive, unstressed mice. The naive mice that received the fecal transplant became anxious and exhibited depressive behavior, much like the donor mouse.

Furthermore, the dysbiotic fecal transplant from the chronically stressed mouse resulted in reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the receiving mouse. And the reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis was associated with a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the recipient rodent’s brain. These changes were not seen in the laboratory animals that received a “control microbiota” transplant from a normal, unstressed mouse.

Probing further, the French scientists discovered that the dysbiotic fecal transplant altered the fatty acid metabolism of the recipient mice, leading to a “systemic decrease in endocannabinoid precursors.”

Specifically, the researchers identified a paucity of diacyglyerol (DAG) compounds, which are an essential building block of 2-AG [2-Arachidonoyglycerol], the most prevalent endocannabinoid in the brain and body.

“In the hippocampus, we observed a decrease in 2-AG” in mice receiving the dysbiotic fecal transplant “but not with control microbiota,” according to the French team, which noted that serum levels of DAG “were inversely correlated with the severity of depressive-live behaviors.” Depleted DAG means less 2-AG, diminished cannabinoid receptor activity, and more intense mood disorders.

The fecal transplant experiment proved that “intestinal microbiota [are] sufficient to initiate a pathological feed-forward loop for depressive disorders by impairing the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus, a brain region strongly involved in the development of depressive symptoms.”

Lactobacilli & Endocannabinoid Precursors

Medical researchers have identified key changes in the microbiome that contribute to gut dysbiosis. Fecal transfer data involving mice revealed that stress-induced “perturbations of gut bacterial composition were characterized by loss of Lactobacilli, an alteration that was maintained after microbiota transplantation to naive hosts.” Beyond animal models, gut microbiota dysbiosis characterized by low Lactobacilli frequency has also been detected in depressed humans.

The next step was obvious: ascertain whether probiotic treatment with Lactobacilli would ameliorate depressive-like behavior in mice that received a dysbiotic fecal transplant. Sure enough, that did the trick. A Lactobacillus strain was shown to alleviate microbiota-induced anxiety and depression while boosting endocannabinoid brain levels and hippocampal neurogenesis. “We have found that one of the mechanisms by which Lactobacilli promote these effects is through regulation of the bioavailability of endocannabinoid precursors,” the French study asserted.

This finding adds a new dimension to the significant body of scientific literature, which demonstrates that “Lactobacilli treatment, as well as the administration of other probiotics, are beneficial in significantly lowering depression and anxiety scores in patients.”

It’s reasonable to postulate that in addition to probiotic intervention, a diet rich in endocannabinoid precursor compounds, such as arachidonic acid, will raise 2-AG levels in the brain. Milk and meat are rich sources of arachidonic acid, which combines with DAG to create 2-AG. (Sorry, vegans, but that’s what the science says.) 2-AG activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain, and this produces anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects by modulating hippocampal neurogenesis in people as well as lab animals.

A Key Pathway

Of course, there are other ways to enhance cannabinoid tone. Consuming resin-rich cannabis is a popular, time-tested option. But this was not the focus of the French study, which identified what seems to be a key pathway linking microbiota dysbiosis to mood disorders.

“In sum,” the authors conclude, “our data show that microbiota dysbiosis induced by chronic stress affects lipid metabolism and the generation of endocannabinoids, leading to decreased signaling in the endocannabinoid system and reduced adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus… Because we were able to interrupt this pathological feed-forward loop by administering arachidonic acid or a Lactobacillus probiotic strain, our study supports the concept that dietary or probiotic interventions might be effective levers in the therapeutic arsenal to fight stress-associated depressive syndromes.”

Martin A. Lee is the director of Project CBD and the author of Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana — Medical, Recreational and Scientific.

Copyright, Project CBD. May not be reprinted without permission.



Gummy dosage per PEICE

Republished by Plato



Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Checkout PrimeXBT
Trade with the Official CFD Partners of AC Milan
The Easiest Way to Way To Trade Crypto.
Check out Nord
Make your Money Grow with Mintos

Continue Reading


4 Practical Steps to Get a Medical Marijuana Card in Maine

  Cannabis products are gaining popularity with widespread legalization movements across the United States and worldwide. U.S. public opinion increasingly supports both medical and recreational use of marijuana. So far, more than 30 states have allowed legal medical marijuana programs, and 9 have permitted recreational adult use of cannabis. Overall, the benefits of medical cannabis […]

The post 4 Practical Steps to Get a Medical Marijuana Card in Maine appeared first on MMJ DOCTOR.

Republished by Plato




Cannabis products are gaining popularity with widespread legalization movements across the United States and worldwide. U.S. public opinion increasingly supports both medical and recreational use of marijuana. So far, more than 30 states have allowed legal medical marijuana programs, and 9 have permitted recreational adult use of cannabis. Overall, the benefits of medical cannabis outweigh the negative aspects associated with misuse of the herb. The natural herb has been proven to effectively alleviate throbbing pain and treat a wide range of ailments.

Use medical marijuana to enjoy its numerous health benefits by clicking the button below!

Throughout the world, the advocates of medical cannabis and the entire medical community recognize cannabis to have healing properties to treat a myriad of health conditions. In this guide, we have highlighted the steps you need to take to obtain your medical marijuana (MMJ) card in Maine.

Here are the four simple steps to getting your valid medical marijuana card in Maine:

Table of Contents

Understand The Laws

The first and perhaps the most important thing you can do for yourself (and your marijuana use) is get acquainted with the current medical marijuana card Maine laws. Since there have been several changes in the rules and regulations surrounding medical cannabis in Maine, we understand that things can be confusing for marijuana users.

Since 1999, there have been several leaps made, and laws passed to legalize marijuana use. In 2016, Maine voters reiterated that they want cannabis legalized for both retail sale and recreational use. Lawmakers are getting logistics to put everything into action. So, while particular forms of buying and selling cannabis have been legalized, recreational cannabis use is still not legal in Maine.

However, cannabis use is currently legal for anyone with a medical marijuana card. You can get your medical marijuana card in Maine and purchase products from registered medical cannabis dispensaries in the state. 

Note that it is illegal for medical marijuana users to hold more than 2.5 ounces of cannabis or more than 5 grams of concentrate at any one time. Additionally, marijuana users cannot be under the age of 21 unless they have obtained a medical cannabis card.

Many laws that involve operating a vehicle or machine are similar to alcohol laws. Therefore, it is unlawful to operate a vehicle or machine under the influence of weed. Doing so could attract a charge with an OUI. It is also illegal to open up and use marijuana in a vehicle. Similarly, marijuana cannot be consumed publicly or in plain sight. You can only legally use cannabis on private property.

how to get medical marijuana in maine

Maine medical marijuana caregiver

1. Qualifying Conditions for a Medical Marijuana Card in Maine

It would help if you learned the medical conditions that qualify for a Medical Marijuana Card in Maine.

In the state of Maine, the following medical conditions may qualify you for a medical cannabis recommendation and card:

  • ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) or Lou Gehrig’s Disease 
  • Wasting Syndrome or Cachexia 
  • Crohn’s Disease 
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Glaucoma 
  • Cancer and the treatment of various side-effects of chemotherapy 
  • Chronic Intractable Pain
  • Hepatitis C 
  • Severe Nausea
  • Nail-Patella Syndrome 
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) as well as irritable bowel diseases (IBDs) like Crohn’s disease
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Severe and persistent muscle spasms, such as those caused by Multiple Sclerosis (M.S.) Seizures, such as those caused by Epilepsy

2. Find a Medical Marijuana Practitioner

 Historically, each state has listed unique qualifying conditions that qualify for medical cannabis treatment. While Maine has required qualifying conditions in the past, the amendment passed in 2018 left the sole qualification at the discretion of your cannabis doctor or practitioner.

Suppose your current doctor is not comfortable with the idea of prescribing marijuana for your condition(s). In that case, you may need to find a helpful list of caregivers, doctors, and practitioners in Maine that are open to medical cannabis. You can also make online appointments with a registered doctor to chat your way to wellness through medical marijuana.

Contact Us at MMJ Doctor for MMJ Card or click the banner below to book your appointment.

Medical marijuana card Online

Get Medical Marijuana Card Online

To obtain your valid medical marijuana card, you may need the following:

  • Maine driver’s license
  • Valid payment: You may need to pay the doctor or practitioner visit fee and an application fee for your medical marijuana card.
  • Medical records: If you seek qualification through a doctor or practitioner who is not your PCP, be sure to bring your medical records with you.

Overall, obtaining a prescription in Maine requires consulting with a licensed doctor that prescribes medical marijuana. You can even consult with doctors across the U.S. from the comfort of your home through online video chat platforms.

Once your physician has approved any qualifying condition, they can recommend medical marijuana as an alternative medicine for your condition. Qualifying medical conditions range from debilitating health conditions, such as Glaucoma, to simple chronic pain, such as headache, stomach ache, and many more.

3. Get Your Certificate

Once you are considered a qualified medical marijuana patient, the next step is to apply for a medical marijuana card in Maine. With your MMJ Certificate, you will legally be able to purchase marijuana from a Maine state-licensed dispensary. 

At MMJ Doctor, here’s how you can obtain your medical marijuana card in Maine online:

  • Complete the application online: You don’t need an appointment to get your medical marijuana card in Maine. Just register and answer a few questions we provide. The answers you provide will help us determine if medical cannabis is a recommended treatment for your ailment.
  • Receive your recommendation: Once our licensed practitioner has approved your application, you will instantly receive a digital copy of your Medical Marijuana Recommendation. The official hard copy will arrive through the mail in 1-3 days. We settle all postage charges and use discreet labeling with no reference to cannabis.
  • Visit any dispensary: With your Medical Cannabis card, you have the right to legally purchase medical marijuana products from any licensed dispensary in your state. You can also access marijuana products for personal use or for growing to suit your individual needs.

Get health benefits of Medical Marijuana by clicking the button below!

Cannabis dispensaries across Maine typically sell cannabis flower, smoking accessories, tinctures, and edibles to approved patients. With your MMJ card, you can visit your nearest dispensary in Maine to consult with a budtender or dispensary store associate about which specific medical marijuana strains are ideal for relieving various health conditions.

4. Renew Annually

Remember that you will need to renew your medical marijuana card every year to continue purchasing marijuana products legally. Re-certification also needs to be completed through a licensed doctor, practitioner, or caregiver.

By maintaining a valid marijuana card through annual renewal, you can enjoy the following benefits:

       1. Higher Possession Limits

Even if you live in a part of the country where recreational marijuana is legalized, it is still a good idea to obtain a medical marijuana card. In some states, medical marijuana cardholders have the right to possess a larger quantity of cannabis for personal use.

       2. Greater Dispensary Access

With a medical marijuana card, you will get priority service at multiple dispensaries and delivery services. You will be able to call in orders and avoid long waits in line. In states where recreational cannabis has not been legalized, only persons with valid medical marijuana certificates can access marijuana products.

       3. Lower Taxes

Recreational cannabis states often tax cannabis products at a relatively high rate. However, medical marijuana cardholders are generally excused from these high taxes. Some states may even waive sales tax for patients who need medical marijuana. 

        4. Opportunities for In-Home Growing

Many states only allow medical cannabis patients to cultivate medical weed for personal use. With your medical marijuana card, you can legally purchase seeds and other growing products easily in Maine.

       5. Access to All Products

Many states have a wide variety of marijuana products that are available only to persons with valid medical cannabis cards. These are typically the most potent and effective cannabis products. A medical marijuana card will ensure that you use any of these products when you want to.

       6. Access to Special State Programs

States such as Maine have special programs just for medical cannabis users. For example, you can have special identification cards, tax benefits, and other impressive perks. Medical marijuana patients also get access to a variety of cannabis products as long as they keep renewing their medical marijuana cards annually.

maine medical marijuana card

Maine Medical Marijuana Facts

Different Marijuana Consumption Methods

There are several innovative ways medical marijuana patients can use the herb without smoking the dried plant or CBD oil to protect their lungs. For example, medical cannabis patients can ingest cannabis edibles from marijuana butter-infused products such as candy or baked goods.

The ingredient of marijuana butter in the edibles is used to make various baked products and cannabis-infused drinks. When you consume a cannabis edible, the reaction of marijuana consumption can be delayed up to two hours, depending on your weight, metabolism, tolerance, and whether you have an empty or full stomach.

 For more accurate dosage and fast-acting relief, medical cannabis patients have the option of buying marijuana-infused tinctures. By taking a few drops of tinctures under the tongue, you can feel relief within just 45 minutes.

Medical cannabis-infused topicals, like THC-infused salve, bath bombs, and bath soaks, are becoming increasingly popular. For example, topicals applied on the skin can heal eczema and irritated skin and relieve aching joints without feeling high. 

Moreover, the Rick Simpson oil method is one popular form of preventing the growth of cancer cells using cannabis. The oil is produced by combining marijuana oil with coconut oil in a capsule form.

Once you have obtained your medical marijuana card, do not hesitate to visit a registered medical marijuana dispensary to purchase high-quality medicinal products available to you in Maine.

The Cost of Medical Marijuana Card in Maine 

When you make your Maine medical marijuana card application as a new patient, the cost is $189 for a 12 Month Cannabis Card and M.E. Licensed Doctor, Access to any MMJ dispensary in M.E., and 24/7 Online Support. As a Returning Patient, the cost is $149 for the same package. You can also apply for Maine medical marijuana caregiver card if you’re taking medical marijuana for a minor or senior under your care.

Although you can find cheap medical marijuana cards in Maine, always go for genuine cards from reputable and licensed doctors such as MMJ Doctor. 

Avail all the health benefits of medical marijuana by clicking the button below!

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, there are countless numbers of individuals who overdose from prescription painkillers every day. Opiate abuse and the heroin epidemic have continued to escalate at an alarming rate throughout the United States.

On the flip side, there have not been many known cases of cannabis overdose or marijuana as the cause of death. Medical cannabis has been demonstrated to be a much safer treatment option for various medical conditions, including chronic pain, without the physically addictive characteristics associated with opiate use.

Doctors across the globe are now beginning to pursue the option to shrink cancerous tumors using medical marijuana. The list of medical conditions that cannabis can help treat continues to grow every day as researchers slowly receive the required funding to conduct these experiments.

If you or your loved ones seek marijuana treatment for any qualifying ailment, you need to apply for a medical marijuana card and a licensed doctor’s recommendation in Maine.

Get Your Maine Medical Marijuana Today!

At MMJ Doctor, we’d love to help you obtain your valid medical marijuana card and begin to access a wide range of quality medical cannabis products from your local Maine dispensary. Your Medical Marijuana Evaluation is hassle-free and straightforward. It starts with an online consultation with our licensed M.D., answering a few questions, and getting an instant PDF Copy of your Medical Marijuana Card via email. You will also get a 12-month medical marijuana doctor`s recommendation and 24/7 Verification by Phone or Online. 

Contact us today to begin your journey to good health and wellness through medical cannabis! Book your appointment today!

Medical marijuana card Online

Get Medical Marijuana Card Online

Our Reader Score

[Total: 0 Average: 0]

Checkout PrimeXBT
Trade with the Official CFD Partners of AC Milan
The Easiest Way to Way To Trade Crypto.
Check out Nord
Make your Money Grow with Mintos

Continue Reading


Idaho House Approves Industrial Hemp Bill

Republished by Plato



A bill that would legalize industrial hemp in Idaho cleared its first major hurdle in the House Monday.

Several Republicans voted against the proposal because they don’t think it goes far enough. Hemp would still be illegal unless you hold a permit to grow, process or ship the plant.

Rep. Dorothy Moon (R-Stanley) has tried to legalize hemp for years. She said she appreciates the attempt, but that she can’t support the bill as-is.

“Their heart is in the right place, but again, the cart is way ahead of the actual horse here,” Moon said.

The bill’s sponsor, Rep. Clark Kauffman (R-Filer), acknowledged that it might not be what everyone wants.

“Though it may be seen as a bit constricting, it’s a lot less constricting than what we have now, which is no production,” Kauffman said.

Idaho is the only state in the country to not have some legal form of hemp.

The plant produces small amounts of THC, the psychoactive ingredient found in its cousin, marijuana, but not enough to get someone high. Still, any amount of THC is considered illegal in Idaho.

In past years, law enforcement lobbying groups have blocked attempts to fully legalize the plant over concerns marijuana could be disguised as hemp.

The bill now heads to the Senate for consideration.

Follow James Dawson on Twitter @RadioDawson for more local news.

Copyright 2021 Boise State Public Radio

Member support is what makes local COVID-19 reporting possible. Support this coverage here.

Checkout PrimeXBT
Trade with the Official CFD Partners of AC Milan
The Easiest Way to Way To Trade Crypto.
Check out Nord
Make your Money Grow with Mintos

Continue Reading
Heartland5 days ago

Why CBD is a Great Partner for Any Wellness Routine

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland5 days ago

Remove Limonene from oil

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

CBD and Depression

Metal5 days ago

CISA mills’ daily steel output up 0.85% in late Feb after 3.49% rise in mid-Feb

Heartland5 days ago

Columbia Care Guides Higher For 2021

Heartland5 days ago

Metal4 days ago

India’s AMNS inks MoU with Odisha government for greenfield mill project

News3 days ago

CBD News Roundup: CBD Leader Charlotte’s Web to Sell THC Products

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland5 days ago

Hulled Hemp Seeds Market Estimated Forecast Analysis 2021-2030

Uncategorized5 days ago

Namaste Technologies Announces Appointment of New CFO

Metal5 days ago

Turkish coated coil prices surge amid good demand, limited allocation

News4 days ago

CBD News: CBD giant Charlotte’s Web positions to enter THC market

Heartland4 days ago

Sudden rise in anxiety

Manufacturing4 days ago

Confused with these similar quotes from different companies. Could it be the same company? Am I being scammed in any way?

Heartland3 days ago

Durag and the Deertag Ep 37: Thanos Dust with Jay Simpson

Composites5 days ago

New postponement sees JEC World moved to 2022

Metal5 days ago

AISI calls on new US commerce secretary to maintain Section 232

Heartland4 days ago

CBDA: A Complete Introduction to Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)

Heartland4 days ago

Uncategorized4 days ago

New Jersey Cultivation License: How to Apply

Manufacturing3 days ago

Why are warehouse break buzzers so expensive??

Uncategorized2 days ago

Cannabis Market Could Reach $90 Billion By 2026

Uncategorized17 hours ago

Can CBD Oil Help Treat Medical Conditions?

Metal5 days ago

Ex-China HDG offers rise further, better local market brings optimism

Heartland5 days ago

Cannabis Companies Go On Buying Spree

Heartland4 days ago


A Cloud Nine Capital Entity Copyright © 2020 – All Rights Reserved Proudly Made in America