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Green and Chemical Syntheses of CdO NPs: A Comparative Study for Yield Attributes, Biological Characteristics, and Toxicity Concerns

Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have enormous applications due to their remarkable physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of NPs has been a matter of concern because chemical methods are toxic. On the contrary, biological methods are considered eco-friendly. To compare the toxicity and the environment-friendly nature of the synthesis methodologies, cadmium NPs were synthesized through chemical (Ch) (co-precipitation) and biological (plant extracts as reducing agent) methods. Cadmium…

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. 2020 Mar 11;5(11):5739-5747.

doi: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03769. eCollection 2020 Mar 24.

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Madeeha Nasrullah et al. ACS Omega. .

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Abstract

Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have enormous applications due to their remarkable physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of NPs has been a matter of concern because chemical methods are toxic. On the contrary, biological methods are considered eco-friendly. To compare the toxicity and the environment-friendly nature of the synthesis methodologies, cadmium NPs were synthesized through chemical (Ch) (co-precipitation) and biological (plant extracts as reducing agent) methods. Cadmium nitrate was reduced with NaOH, while in the biological method, the Cd ions were reduced by Artemisia scoparia (As) and Cannabis sativa (Cs) extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the pure single-phase cubic structure of green and chemically synthesized CdO NPs except As-CdO NPs that were crystalline cum amorphous in nature. The size of nanoparticles was 84 nm (Cs-CdO NPs) and 42.2 nm (Ch-CdO NPs). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images exhibited an irregular disklike morphology of nanoparticles that agglomerated more in the case of green synthesis. The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of NPs revealed that chemically synthesized NPs have better antimicrobial capability, while the antioxidative activities were better for green-synthesized NPs. However, the low yield, high ion disassociation, and waste (unreacted metal) production in the green synthesis of CdO NPs increase the risk of contamination to biosphere. Both types of NPs did not affect the seed germination of Dodonaea viscosa. However, chemically synthesized NPs were less toxic on plant morphological response. The study concludes that the chemically synthesized CdO NPs have better morphology, significant antimicrobial activity, and less toxicity to plant species compared to green-synthesized NPs. Moreover, during the green synthesis, unreacted metals are drained, which causes contamination to the ecosystem.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

XRD pattern of CdO nanoparticles synthesized through the
green
chemistry and co-precipitation method: Ch-CdO NPs (nanoparticles synthesized
by chemical method), Cs-CdO NPs (nanoparticles synthesized by C. sativa), and As-CdO NPs (nanoparticles synthesized
by A. scoparia).

Figure 2

Figure 2

FTIR spectra of CdO nanoparticles synthesized through
green chemistry
and co-precipitation method: Ch-CdO NPs (nanoparticles synthesized
by chemical method), Cs-CdO NPs (nanoparticles synthesized by C. sativa), and As-CdO NPs (nanoparticles synthesized
by A. scoparia).

Figure 3

Figure 3

SEM analysis of CdO NPs synthesized through
green chemistry and
co-precipitation method: (A) Ch-CdO NPs, (B) Cs-CdO NPs, and (C) As-CdO
NPs.

Figure 4

Figure 4

Antioxidative properties
of CdO NPs and plant extract. As: A. scoparia, Cs: C. sativa, As-CdO NPs: Artemesia-synthesized
CdO NPs, Cs-CdO NPs: Cannabis-synthesized
CdO NPs, Ch-CdO NPs: chemically synthesized CdO NPs. Values are presented
as mean ± standard error. Different small letters on each column
show a significant difference between values.

Figure 5

Figure 5

Morphological response ofD. viscosa grown in the presence of chemically and green-synthesized CdO nanoparticles.
The NPs showed varied toxicity on shoot length and root length depending
upon the type and concentration of NPs. The similar small letters
shown on bars show nonsignificant difference at p < 0.05.

Figure 6

Figure 6

Toxicity mechanism of chemically and biologically
synthesized CdO
NPs. Ch-CdO NPs release a Cd ion that interacts with the surface biomolecules
and causes more damage due to influx, where it causes ROS and inactivation
of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The green-synthesized CdO NPs interact
more on the surface due to compatibility with biological system along
with release of ions.

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References

    1. Das R. K.; Pachapur V. L.; Lonappan L.; Naghdi M.; Pulicharla R.; Maiti S.; Cledon M.; Dalila L. M. A.; Sarma S. J.; Brar S. K. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: plants, animals and microbial aspects. Nanotechnol. Environ. Eng. 2017, 2, 1810.1007/s41204-017-0029-4. – DOI
    1. Rastogi A.; Singh P.; Haraz F. A.; Barhoum A.Biological Synthesis of Nanoparticles: An Environmentally Benign Approach. In Fundamentals of Nanoparticles; Elsevier, 2018; pp 571–604.
    1. Ali A.; Zafar H.; Zia M.; ul Haq I.; Phull A. R.; Ali J. S.; Hussain A. Synthesis, characterization, applications, challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles. Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 2016, 9, 49.10.2147/NSA.S99986. – DOI PMC PubMed
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