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Germany Rejected Its Recreational Cannabis Bill

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The people of New Zealand just voted down a measure to legalize cannabis through a referendum. New Jersey just legalized it recreationally also through its own referendum. Germany didn’t put the question to its people, but last month the government of Germany rejected its recreational cannabis bill.

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A little about Germany and cannabis

As per the title, recreational marijuana is not legal in Germany. In fact, possessing it at all can garner a person up to five years in prison according to the German Federal Narcotics Act, though conversely, it’s not technically illegal to use it, since there is no stated law against it. If caught with small amounts, offenders are usually put in a program over anything more serious, at least for first-time offenders. The term ‘small amount’ is not very well defined, though, and can mean anywhere from about 6-15 grams depending on where in Germany the possession takes place. Plus, the amount is judged by quantity and potency over actual weight, meaning the THC content helps define the amount in the end.

Sale and supply crimes are predictably illegal, and offenders can receive up to about five years in prison. This sentence goes up from 1-15 years depending on the circumstances of the case. Cultivation on a personal level is also illegal and garners the same punishment as sale and supply crimes.

France vs the EU, makes it that much more clear. EU standard has now been found to trump local member state laws when it comes to the import and export of CBD between member states. As per EU standards, Germany does not allow more than .2% THC in CBD oil preparations.

Technically, the medical use of a cannabis drug has been legal since 1998 in Germany when dronabinol was rescheduled. It wasn’t until 2017, however, that Germany further legalized medicinal cannabis. As of 2017, new legislation opened the door for more disorders and sicknesses to be relevant for treatment.

What about Germany’s market?

The thing about Germany is that it already has one of the biggest cannabis markets in the EU, and even in the world, though right now it’s all a medicinal market. In 2019, for example, Germany was the biggest importer and exporter of cannabis oil in the EU. Though the country can’t compete just yet with the US in terms of imports – the US for 2019 imported approximately $893 million worth of cannabis oil making it the clear leader, Germany did get the #2 spot with $240 million worth of oil imported that year. When it comes to exports, Germany led the EU with about $230 million worth of cannabis oil exports, but that was only 4th place in the world. Topping the export list was China, sitting pretty with just under $1 billion worth of cannabis oil exports that year.

Cannabis oil is only part of it. Most of the legal cannabis world still revolves around dry flowers, and Germany just happens to have a massive cannabis flower market as well. And one that is only looking to grow and expand out more. In July, Germany released data on its medical cannabis imports for the first two quarters of the year. While Q1 showed an increase of 16%, Q2 showed a massive 32% increase, and this at the height of the Coronavirus pandemic measures being taken all over the world. To give an idea of what this means via comparison, in 2018, Germany imported about 3.1 tons of cannabis flowers, this was increased to 6.7 tons in 2019, and it looks like it will go much higher than that by the end of 2020. During this time, Germany had such an issue with supply problems that it requested extra cannabis flowers from the Netherlands to help close the gap. Part of the reason for the need for more medical cannabis is simply the increasing number of Germans receiving it as treatment. As of June 2019, about 60,000 Germans were registered with the medical marijuana program in the country, and that number is sure to be way higher by now.

Uruguay (through a secretive back-door move using Portugal to import), and Spain via Linneo, a Spanish cannabis producer. Canada, however, is still the main importer to Germany, with several new companies opening shop in Germany, or planning new exports to the country. To give an idea of how out-of-whack prices have gotten in Germany, consider that the current retail price of a gram of cannabis is about €20. Then consider that this is a medical price, not even a recreational price.

What’s the deal with recreational?

Everything so far should give some idea of how big Germany’s cannabis market is, and how quickly it’s growing. As the biggest market in the EU, it’s not that surprising that the question of a recreational legalization would come up, since, obviously, Germany is pretty okay with use of the plant. However, this sentiment did not come through as a recreational legalization as last month Germany rejected its recreational cannabis bill.

Germany has six main political parties. The Left (holds 69 seats and is in favor of legalizing), the Social Democratic Party of Germany (about 152 seats, technically in favor of legalization, but voted with coalition partner instead – the Union, which includes the Christian Democrats led by Angela Merkel), the Union (two parties making up 264 seats, against legalization), the Greens (67 seats, and in support of legalization), the Free Democratic Party (holds 80 seats, but did not vote on the measure), and Alternative for Germany (somewhere in the neighborhood of 89-94 seats, and against legalization).

On October 29th, the proposed bill for an adult-use recreational cannabis market in Germany was firmly rejected in parliament, despite having plenty of support from different factions of Germany’s parliament. One of the big reasons for this is the coalition between the Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Union is itself is a coalition between the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (led by Angela Merkel) and the Christian Social Union in Bavaria. The Social Democratic Party of Germany, which though technically is in favor of cannabis reform, tends to vote with its coalition partner, the Union. Together they hold enough seats that any initiative will fail without at least some of their support. In this way, by having the two parties paired together, Germany rejected its recreational cannabis bill squarely.

In the wake of the fact that Germany rejected its recreational cannabis bill, it’s hard to imagine what the next step will be. Unlike with a country like New Zealand, it was not the people of the country who voted the measure down, but rather, parliament on its own. This means the people of Germany are not necessarily on board with this decision, and that could mean new measures arising in the near future. It is, after all, already one of the biggest cannabis markets in the world. The step to legalization gets smaller and smaller as Germany gets more and more saturated with cannabis. Personally, I expect something will happen very soon that will tip the balance in the other direction.

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Resources

Germany Leads EU in Cannabis Oil Imports…and Exports
Mexico Still Waiting on Its Promised Cannabis Legalization

German Cannabis Flower Market is Ready to Explode
Recreational Cannabis is Legal in Georgia – But Who Knew?

Fly with Cannabis – Which Countries Let You Do It Newest Cannabinoid Powerhouse – CBC – What Can It Do for You?
What is DELTA 8 THC (FAQ: Great resource to learn about DELTA 8THC)

Legal for a Day – The Mahashivaratri Festival and Nepal’s Changing Cannabis Laws
German Cannabis Flower Market is Ready to Explode
The CBD Flowers Weekly newsletter (your top resource for all things smokable hemp flowers)
The Medical Cannabis Weekly newsletter (International medical cannabis business report)
Customize Your Cannabinoids – Now You Can Mix’ N’ Match

The Delta 8 Weekly Newsletter (All you need to know about Delta 8 thc) and the Best Black Friday Delta 8 THC Deals 2020. Cannabis Election Results – Best Black Friday Delta 8 THC Deals 2020
EU Beat France, CBD Legal Throughout EU
THC Isolate Explained – Everything You Need To Know
A Complete Guide To CBN Isolate (Cannabinol)
Get EU GMP-Certified Cannabinoid Isolates and Distillates

Source: https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=https://cbdtesters.co/2020/11/22/germany-rejected-its-recreational-cannabis-bill/&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGmM2M2RhZjlmZTVmZDZjMmU6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNFCgrO9134302vljl5aifY7QKuJYQ

Heartland

Good cbd carts in LA?

Republished by Plato

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Live in LA so have access to all the dispensaries. Looking for a good cart recommendation as it seems to be the only method that has an effect for me before bed. Currently using a brand called “cannabis by design” 18:1 ratio and like it but I feel like there are better brands out there?

Thanks!

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/l0velw/good_cbd_carts_in_la/

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There may still be hope for the ‘not perfect’ USDA final rule on hemp

United States Department of Agriculture’s finalized hemp regulations, which were published on January 15, evoked a variety of responses f…

Republished by Plato

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United States Department of Agriculture’s finalized hemp regulations, which were published on January 15, evoked a variety of responses from those invested in the industry. In a previous blog post, we covered some of the changes between the final rule and the interim final rule (IFR) that have industry leaders celebrating. However, the final rule might be more of a mixed bag overall.

Although it includes some provisions that are expected to benefit the hemp industry, there are others that may leave industry leaders disappointed, including the requirements for harvest samples to come from hemp flowers, for total tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) testing, and for testing to occur in labs certified by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

“It does not seem to be clear that it is a definite improvement over the interim final rule but that it is not perfect. It does not go as far as some of the key things we requested,” Jonathan Miller told Marijuana Moment. Miller is the general counsel for the U.S. Hemp Roundtable.

Industry stakeholders reportedly encouraged the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to allow pre-harvest samples to come from a greater part of the plant or the whole plant instead of just the flower. The USDA did not include this change in its final rule. Instead, it claims that the flower is the most appropriate place to sample because THC is concentrated there.

Under the final rule, pre-harvest samples must still come from the cannabis flower. However, this requirement has been modified slightly. When the final rule goes into effect on March 22, the samples can be taken from about five to eight inches from the main stem, terminal bud, or central cola of the flowering top of the plant.

Another request made by industry stakeholders was for hemp crops to be tested for delta-9 THC instead of total THC content. Delta-9 THC is the main psychoactive component in cannabis — the component that can make people feel high. Total THC includes the possible conversion of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into THC.

Some reportedly believe that the total THC better represents the sample’s potential to get someone high because it accounts for the cannabinoids that could be activated with heat when the product is consumed through vaping, smoking , or cooking. However, THCA is not psychoactive, and not all products that may be made from hemp would result in THCA being converted to delta-9 THC.

Unfortunately, the USDA maintained that hemp must be tested for total THC content, and that the THC concentration for a legal hemp crop must be below 0.3%.

Perhaps the biggest disappointment to industry stakeholders is that the USDA’s final rule did not change the requirement for hemp testing to occur only at labs certified by the DEA.

“Registration is necessary because laboratories could possibly handle cannabis that tests above 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis, which is, by definition, marijuana and a Schedule 1 controlled substance,” the final rule states.

However, there are not enough qualifying labs available to efficiently handle the number of hemp tests needed in this growing industry, a fact that was acknowledged in the final rule.

The final rule adds, “[S]ince the IFR was published, numerous laboratories have applied for registration and DEA is working diligently to process these requests.”

In the meantime, the USDA is delaying the enforcement of this rule. It was first delayed in 2020, and the final rule extended this delay until December 2022.

Although the USDA’s final rule did include some positive steps, it also lacked several important changes that industry stakeholders were hoping to see.

“USDA seems to have declined to act upon many of the comments submitted, particularly concerning sampling uncertainty, DEA labs and Total THC among others,” Herrick Fox reportedly told Hemp Industry Daily. Fox is the owner of Meristem Farms and a former USDA rulemaker.

“Many are justifiably disappointed by the DEA’s continued (and in some ways expanded) role in the agricultural hemp program,” said Shawn Hauser in a press release. Hauser is a partner and chair of the Hemp and Cannabinoids Department at Vincente Sederberg LLP.

The USDA released its final rule in the last week of the Trump administration, but some industry leaders remain hopeful that the situation regarding hemp regulations may change under the Biden administration.

“We anticipate, as is customary of new administrations, that this rule will be one of many that will be frozen on the first day of the Biden administration,” Larry Farnsworth, a spokesperson for the National Industrial Hemp Council, reportedly told Marijuana Moment.

“We look forward to working through these issues with the incoming Biden administration,” he added.

Sources

[1] https://www.marijuanamoment.net/usda-releases-final-rule-for-hemp-two-years-after-crop-was-federally-legalized/

[2] https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/01/19/2021-00967/establishment-of-a-domestic-hemp-production-program

[3] https://cannabusiness.law/what-is-total-thc-and-does-it-matter/

[4] https://www.ams.usda.gov/rules-regulations/hemp

[5] https://hempindustrydaily.com/hemp-industry-advocates-dish-reactions-on-usda-final-hemp-rules/

[6] https://vicentesederberg.com/press/usda-announces-final-rule-regulating-the-production-of-hemp-in-the-u.s/

Source: https://www.nothingbuthemp.net/post/there-may-still-be-hope-for-the-not-perfect-usda-final-rule-on-hemp

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Heartland

Alginate Affects Bioactivity of Chimeric Collagen-Binding LL37 Antimicrobial Peptides Adsorbed to Collagen-Alginate Wound Dressings

Chronic infected wounds cause more than 23,000 deaths annually. Antibiotics and antiseptics are conventionally used to treat infected wounds; however, they can be toxic to mammalian cells, and their use can contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been utilized to address the limitations of antiseptics and antibiotics. In previous work, we modified the human AMP LL37 with collagen-binding domains from collagenase (cCBD) or fibronectin (fCBD) to facilitate…

Republished by Plato

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Chronic infected wounds cause more than 23,000 deaths annually. Antibiotics and antiseptics are conventionally used to treat infected wounds; however, they can be toxic to mammalian cells, and their use can contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been utilized to address the limitations of antiseptics and antibiotics. In previous work, we modified the human AMP LL37 with collagen-binding domains from collagenase (cCBD) or fibronectin (fCBD) to facilitate peptide tethering and delivery from collagen-based wound dressings. We found that cCBD-LL37 and fCBD-LL37 were retained and active when bound to 100% collagen scaffolds. Collagen wound dressings are commonly made as composites with other materials, such as alginate. The goal of this study was to investigate how the presence of alginate affects the tethering, release, and antimicrobial activity of LL37 and CBD-LL37 peptides adsorbed to commercially available collagen-alginate wound dressings (FIBRACOL Plus-a 90% collagen and 10% alginate wound dressing). We found that over 85% of the LL37, cCBD-LL37, and fCBD-LL37 was retained on FIBRACOL Plus over a 14-day release study (90.3, 85.8, and 98.6%, respectively). Additionally, FIBRACOL Plus samples loaded with peptides were bactericidal toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa, even after 14 days in release buffer but demonstrated no antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The presence of alginate in solution induced conformational changes in the cCBD-LL37 and LL37 peptides, resulting in increased peptide helicity, and reduced antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa. Peptide-loaded FIBRACOL Plus scaffolds were not cytotoxic to human dermal fibroblasts. This study demonstrates that CBD-mediated LL37 tethering is a viable strategy to reduce LL37 toxicity, and how substrate composition plays a crucial role in modulating the antimicrobial activity of tethered AMPs.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; alginate; antimicrobial peptide; collagen scaffold; collagen-binding domain; peptide delivery.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33463166/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210119175353&v=2.14.2

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