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Genetic Variability of Morphological, Flowering, and Biomass Quality Traits in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions on fiber…

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. 2020 Feb 20;11:102.

doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.00102. eCollection 2020.

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Jordi Petit et al. Front Plant Sci. .

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Abstract

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions on fiber quality traits in hemp. To investigate these parameters, a panel of 123 hemp accessions was phenotyped for 28 traits relevant to fiber quality at three locations in Europe, corresponding to climates of northern, central, and southern Europe. In general, hemp cultivated in northern latitudes showed a larger plant vigor while earlier flowering was characteristic of plants cultivated in southern latitudes. Extensive variability between accessions was observed for all traits. Most cell wall components (contents of monosaccharides derived from cellulose and hemicellulose; and lignin content), bast fiber content, and flowering traits revealed large genetic components with low G×E interactions and high broad-sense heritability values, making these traits suitable to maximize the genetic gains of fiber quality. In contrast, contents of pectin-related monosaccharides, most agronomic traits, and several fiber traits (fineness and decortication efficiency) showed low genetic components with large G×E interactions affecting the rankings across locations. These results suggest that pectin, agronomic traits, and fiber traits are unsuitable targets in breeding programs of hemp, as their large G×E interactions might lead to unexpected phenotypes in untested locations. Furthermore, all environmental effects on the 28 traits were statistically significant, suggesting a strong adaptive behavior of fiber quality in hemp to specific environments. The high variability in fiber quality observed in the hemp panel, the broad range in heritability, and adaptability among all traits prescribe positive prospects for the development of new hemp cultivars of excellent fiber quality.

Keywords: Cannabis sativa; cell wall composition; fiber quality; flowering time; genetic variability; genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions; hemp; sex determination.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

Box plots summarizing the variation of a hemp panel for 28 diverse traits in three locations with contrasting environments. For every box plot, the horizontal line represents the median of the trait, the box represent the interquartile range, the bars outside the box represent the extremes and the crosses indicate the outliers. In every panel, the x-axis indicates the location, as specified in the legend. Range of statistical differences across locations are available in Supplementary Table 3. See Table 3 for abbreviations. Sex_det stands for Sex determination.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Correlation analysis between 28 agronomic measurements, flowering stages, fiber traits, and cell wall components. Significant correlations were set at a confidence level of 0.95, and blank cells represent no significant correlations. Rha, Rha%dm; Ara, Ara%dm; Gal, Gal%dm; GalA, GalA%dm; Glc, Glc%dm; Man, Man%dm; Xyl, Xyl%dm; GlcA, GlcA%dm; KL, KL%dm; ADL, ADL%dm; FL1, FL_Begin; FL2, FL_Full; Sex_d, Sex determination; DW1, DW_S5(g); DW2, DW_S(%); DW3, DW(%); BCD, BCD%; X, (χ); Dec1, ηDec_1; Dec2, ηDec_2. See Table 3 for abbreviations.

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References

    1. Amaducci S., Gusovius H. J. (2010). “Hemp-Cultivation, Extraction and Processing,” in Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres: Structure, Properties and Technical Applications. Ed. Müssig J., editor. (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; ). 109–134. 10.1002/9780470660324.ch5 – DOI
    1. Amaducci S., Colauzzi M., Bellocchi G., Cosentino S. L., Pahkala K., Stomph T. J., et al. (2012). Evaluation of a phenological model for strategic decisions for hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) biomass production across European sites. Ind. Crop Prod. 37, 100–110. 10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.11.012 – DOI
    1. Amaducci S., Scordia D., Liu F. H., Zhang Q., Guo H., Testa G., et al. (2015). Key cultivation techniques for hemp in Europe and China. Ind. Crop Prod. (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; ) 68, 2–16. 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.06.041 – DOI
    1. Argillier O., Barrière Y., Traineau R., Emile J. C., Hebert Y. (1997). Genotype × environment interactions for digestibility traits in silage maize estimated from in vivo measurements with standard sheep. Plant Breed. 116, 423–427. 10.1111/j.1439-0523.1997.tb01025.x – DOI
    1. Barrière Y., Thomas J., Denoue D. (2008). QTL mapping for lignin content, lignin monomeric composition, p-hydroxycinnamate content, and cell wall digestibility in the maize recombinant inbred line progeny F838×F286. Plant Sci. 175, 585–595. 10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.06.009 – DOI

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Thc-》cbd

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So I’ve had a slight escapism problem with the since it was introduced into my life. Because I live in a state with it not being legal and I have noticed how much it holds me back I have been wanting to make the transition to cbd for my anxiety.

I have several questions on this topic. Most of the reason I smoked was to get sleep I take adhd meds and I have no desire to eat or sleep. Is cbd still a good alternative being that I have these problems or would people suggest others. Im really worried about getting in trouble due to having cbd because my job drug tests, and the smell is very similar to weed…

Suggestions would be much appreciated!

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jzh4a9/thccbd/

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JUICE BOX FARMS SPECIAL SAUCE

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jzg5s1/juice_box_farms_special_sauce/

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