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Functional redundancy of structural proteins of the peritrophic membrane in Trichoplusia ni

The peritrophic membrane (or peritrophic matrix) (PM) in insects is formed by binding of PM proteins with multiple chitin binding domains (CBDs) to chitin fibrils. Multi-CBD chitin binding proteins (CBPs) and the insect intestinal mucin (IIM) are major PM structural proteins. To understand the biochemical and physiological role of IIM in structural formation and physiological function of the PM, Trichoplusia ni mutant strains lacking IIM were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. The mutant T….

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. 2020 Aug 16;103456.

doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2020.103456. Online ahead of print.

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Shaohua Wang et al. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. .

Abstract

The peritrophic membrane (or peritrophic matrix) (PM) in insects is formed by binding of PM proteins with multiple chitin binding domains (CBDs) to chitin fibrils. Multi-CBD chitin binding proteins (CBPs) and the insect intestinal mucin (IIM) are major PM structural proteins. To understand the biochemical and physiological role of IIM in structural formation and physiological function of the PM, Trichoplusia ni mutant strains lacking IIM were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. The mutant T. ni larvae were confirmed to lack IIM, but PM formation was observed as in wild type larvae and lacking IIM in the PM did not result in changes of protease activities in the larval midgut. Larval growth and development of the mutant strains were similar to the wild type strain on artificial diet and cabbage leaves, but had a decreased survival in the 5th instar. The larvae of the mutant strains with the PM formed without IIM did not have a change of susceptibility to the infection of the baculovirus AcMNPV and the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation Dipel, to the toxicity of the Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab and the chemical insecticide sodium aluminofluoride. Treatment of the mutant T. ni larvae with Calcofluor reduced the larval susceptibility to the toxicity of Bt Cry1Ac, as similarly observed in the wild type larvae. Overall, in the mutant T. ni larvae, the PM was formed without IIM and the lacking of IIM in the PM did not drastically impact the performance of larvae on diet or cabbage leaves under the laboratory conditions.

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt toxin; Cryolite; Insect intestinal mucin; Peritrophic membrane; Trichoplusia ni.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32814147/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20200820071533&v=2.11.5

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My experience with CBD

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I will not spend an hour summarizing my mental health. I will just say that for years I have been plagued by depression, anxiety, antisocial feelings, and over the past year or so a feeling of brain fog. I was diagnosed with ADD as a child and they decided I didn’t have it 2 years later but I know I likely still do. I decided to finally give CBD from the local Rite aid a try. After 4 days I can say that the brain fog is gone. A week ago I couldn’t even explain the feeling that plagued me. I still don’t feel anything close to a normal person but I can say that I have a better ability to process my brain that I haven’t felt in years. I reccomend anyone who is interested give CBD a try. I only hope the clowns in our country can get past the marijuana BS that they try to strong along and connect to CBD.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jlasaf/my_experience_with_cbd/

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Anyone tried 10DollarCartridge CBD carts?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jl95ga/anyone_tried_10dollarcartridge_cbd_carts/

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Anxiety and ADD?

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I went to a doctor to try and sort out my anxiety issues, they are becoming a bit much to self manage. They put me on Prozac and it was a complete nightmare, the side effects were horrible, not to mention all of the unspoken rules that came along with it, no drinking, no ibuprofen, and countless others.

I am a regular THC user and that seems to help control my anxiety in the evenings but I obviously do not use at work which is where the problem lies.

I have issues with general anxiety, social anxiety, and add. Can CBD help me? How do I know how much to take, and do I have to keep taking it as in does it wear off ever couple hours? I dont know anything about this stuff but I know that Prozac is NOT for me!!!

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jl7gfk/anxiety_and_add/

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