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From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects. Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression. To this…

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Review

. 2020 Mar 6;11:124.

doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00124. eCollection 2020.

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Review

Tommaso Cassano et al. Front Pharmacol. .

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Abstract

Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects. Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression. To this regard, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative disorders, are characterized by extensive oxidative damage to different biological substrates that can cause cell death by different pathways. Most cases of neurodegenerative diseases have a complex etiology with a variety of factors contributing to the progression of the neurodegenerative processes; therefore, promising treatment strategies should simultaneously target multiple substrates in order to stop and/or slow down the neurodegeneration. In this context, CBD, which interacts with the eCB system, but has also cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, might be a good candidate as a prototype for anti-oxidant drug development for the major neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD and AD. This review summarizes the multiple molecular pathways that underlie the positive effects of CBD, which may have a considerable impact on the progression of the major neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Cannabis sativa; Parkinson’s disease; cannabidiol; oxidative stress; phytocannabinoids.

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Figure 1

Figure 1

Effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’ disease (AD). CBD antagonizes the action of cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) acting as a reverse agonist and negative allosteric modulator of both receptors. CBD also inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), resulting in increased levels of endocannabinoids (ECs). ECs activate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are partially mediated by the actions of the CBD of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) [1]. CBD binds the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), antagonizes the action of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), and reduces the expression of proinflammatory enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines [2]. Activation of PPARγ by modulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), iNOS, and COX-2 [3]. The CBD downregulates the β- and γ-secretase genes leading to a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) production [4]. CBD is able to reduce the oxidative stress (OS) through the attenuation of mitochondrial dysregulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation or by the decrease of the expression of several ROS generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase isoforms [5]. The stimulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) by CBD can activate phosphoinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling, which in turn inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) by phosphorylation of Ser9, thus reducing tau phosphorylation [6]. CBD reduces the activity of p-GSK-3β, the active phosphorylated form of GSK3-β, and causes an increase in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The activation of this pathway can protect against OS and Aβ neurotoxicity in AD [7].

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References

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Cbd long term effects study by canopy, lifespan increased?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jzwr6o/cbd_long_term_effects_study_by_canopy_lifespan/

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CBD firm on high growth track surpasses $5M in sales

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TAMPA — Proleve Distribution, a Tampa based manufacturer of all-natural CBD products, plans to hire 20 people to support a period of hyper-growth.  

Founded in 2017, Proleve, which produces and distributes products containing the hemp extract CBD, or Cannabidiol, will close out 2020 at $5 million in annual revenue, according to a statement. That’s up 178% from $1.8 million in 2019. To keep up with growing demand, Proleve is now in the early stages of building a new distribution center near Tampa International Airport, the release adds. New jobs added in the coming weeks will help support operations at the facility, as well as at the company’s existing South Tampa headquarters, which will be converted into a retail store. 

“In a year that’s been marked with challenges for so many companies and industries, we’re pleased that Proleve has not only been able to withstand such challenges, but overall has actually been able to thrive in this environment,” Proleve Founder and President Jonathan Solomon says in the statement. “With that in mind, we’ve been working really hard to seize this opportunity in order to further position our growth.”

Earlier this year, Proleve became among the first CBD companies to be officially licensed and certified by Florida’s Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services under new regulations. The certification makes Proleve an official state-approved source for food products containing CBD, in addition to being FDA-registered, the release states.

“Having this official status within the state of Florida has meant an added sense of security for our customers,” Solomon says. “It’s turned out to be an important piece of the puzzle this year, even more so than expected, with sales jumping as our products have offered a sense of relief for those who have faced hardship in 2020.”

“During the peak of COVID-19 earlier this year, we were more focused on keeping jobs safe,” Solomon adds. “Now that we see the full extent of how our business plays into the economic recovery of this region, we’re glad to be adding more jobs and serving as a catalyst for growth.”

Proleve’s products are sold in stores nationwide and worldwide. Its products, including tincture, topicals, capsules and bath bombs are all vegan, kosher-certified, third-party lab tested and 100% natural.

                                                                         

Source: https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=https://www.businessobserverfl.com/article/cbd-firm-on-high-growth-track-surpasses-dollar5m-in-sales&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGjQ2MzM1ZTBkNWQyZmIyYzc6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNESyacJcEc1fMFdEgw7Um8nuECjbA

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Home Grown: Community reports minty and floral flavors from hemp green

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CBS 13’s April Hettinger samples Yuma’s newest leafy crop

YUMA, Ariz. (KYMA, KECY) – Hemp leafy greens were put to the test to see if their flavors are worthy enough to make it in bagged mixes in the grocery stores.

81 people took a survey of nine samples the past two Fridays.

Staff was able to narrow down the 17 types of hemp to five that were the best tasting.

The community sampled the five hemp greens along with three commonly available greens like romaine, kale and baby leaf spinach for comparison.

The ninth sample was a pesto made from the hemp greens by local chefs.

The grower, Robert Masson, agriculture extension agent with the University of Arizona’s Yuma County extension explains the overall consensus of this unique lettuce.

“In general, the hemp was really well liked. Some people didn’t like it, but most of the people did,” Masson said. “They reported minty flavors, fruity flavors and just a little bit of floral.”

Attendees rated the crispiness of the hemp to be similar to kale.

It also has more peach fuzz than other greens.

In its overall likeability, the community rated romaine and spinach higher than the hemp at a 4.1 on a one through five scale.

Hemp was rated a 3.3.

The best tasting hemp greens might make it into grocery stores as bagged mixes for health benefits.

Source: https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=https://kyma.com/news/home-grown/2020/11/23/home-grown-community-reports-minty-and-floral-flavors-from-hemp-green/&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGjYxZmRhODRmNjY4MjhhNTU6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNE7rcoLiE_6doYx8sPtN8OaaibwHQ

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