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Failure analysis of porcupine quills under axial compression reveals their mechanical response during buckling

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Porcupine quills are natural structures formed by a thin walled conical shell and an inner foam core. Axial compression tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were all used to compare the characteristics and mechanical properties of porcupine quills with and without core. The failure mechanisms that occur during buckling were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that delamination buckling is mostly responsible for the decrease in the measured buckling stress of the quills with regard to predicted theoretical values. Our analysis also confirmed that the foam core works as an energy dissipater improving the mechanical response of an empty cylindrical shell, retarding the onset of buckling as well as producing a step wise decrease in force after buckling, instead of an instantaneous decrease in force typical for specimens without core. Cell collapse and cell densification in the inner foam core were identified as the key mechanisms that allow for energy absorption during buckling.

This article originally appeared in Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 39, 2014, Pages 111-118.

Sign up or log in to your free Materials Today account to download the full article.

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Sign up or log in to your free Materials Today account to download the full article.

Porcupine quills are natural structures formed by a thin walled conical shell and an inner foam core. Axial compression tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were all used to compare the characteristics and mechanical properties of porcupine quills with and without core. The failure mechanisms that occur during buckling were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that delamination buckling is mostly responsible for the decrease in the measured buckling stress of the quills with regard to predicted theoretical values. Our analysis also confirmed that the foam core works as an energy dissipater improving the mechanical response of an empty cylindrical shell, retarding the onset of buckling as well as producing a step wise decrease in force after buckling, instead of an instantaneous decrease in force typical for specimens without core. Cell collapse and cell densification in the inner foam core were identified as the key mechanisms that allow for energy absorption during buckling.

This article originally appeared in Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 39, 2014, Pages 111-118.

Sign up or log in to your free Materials Today account to download the full article.

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/biomaterials/features/failure-analysis-of-porcupine-quills-under-axial/

Metal

Graphene oxide can cause anaphylactic shock in primates


Fig. 1. Blood exposure to graphene oxide may cause anaphylactic death in non-human primates.
Fig. 1. Blood exposure to graphene oxide may cause anaphylactic death in non-human primates.

Carbon nanomaterials have emerged as promising new materials and are beginning to be used in applications. Graphene oxide (GO), one of the newest, is finding favor for industrial applications such as optical/electronic circuitry, energy generation and storage because of its ultrahigh surface area. But questions over the in vivo safety of GO remain. These concerns will not be allayed by a recent study reporting anaphylactic shock in a small number of non-human primates exposed to apparently safe levels of GO [Yin et al., Nano Today (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2020.100922].

“Toxicological evaluation of GO has been actively pursued under the context of large-scale industrial production and the potential for clinical translation,” point out Ying Zhu of Shanghai Advanced Research Institute and Chunhai Fan of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, who led the work. “The safety of GO remains largely debated, especially due to the lack of toxicological profile in higher mammals.”

Together with coworkers at Sichuan University, Zhu and Fan investigated the impact of blood exposure to GO on mice and macaques at the maximum safe dose. The effects of two-dimensional GO were compared in similar tests to one-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and zero-dimensional nanodiamonds. To their surprise, one out of the five macaques and seven out of 121 mice tested experienced a fatal reaction to GO, which the researchers believe was induced by acute anaphylactic shock (Fig. 1). Exposure to SWCNTs or nanodiamonds did not produce a similar reaction in any of the animals.

The researchers found elevated levels of antibodies and severe lung damage in the affected animals. Other biological indicators suggest that exposure to GO caused acute liver and heart damage as well. Having found evidence of GO deposits in the lungs, the researchers compared the circulation times of the different carbon materials. While SWCNTs are largely cleared from the bloodstream of mice and monkeys in 6–12 h and nanodiamonds in 1–8 h, GO continues to circulate for up to 72 h. The researchers believe that the relative longevity of GO in the blood compared with SWCNTs and nanodiamonds could offer an explanation.

“[We believe] that long-circulation [times] and distal lung deposition contribute to the anaphylactic reaction,” say Zhu and Fan. “This study highlights the urgent need to evaluate the hypersensitivity risks of graphene,” they add.

Although exposure to GO did not result in acute or long-term adverse effects in most of the mice or macaques tested, anaphylactic reactions in some animals raise serious safety concerns.

“This suggests that case-by-case allergy tests are indispensable prior to the biomedical use of nanomaterials,” point out Zhu and Fan.

This article originally appeared in Nano Today 36 (2021) 101050.

Republished by Plato

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Fig. 1. Blood exposure to graphene oxide may cause anaphylactic death in non-human primates.
Fig. 1. Blood exposure to graphene oxide may cause anaphylactic death in non-human primates.

Carbon nanomaterials have emerged as promising new materials and are beginning to be used in applications. Graphene oxide (GO), one of the newest, is finding favor for industrial applications such as optical/electronic circuitry, energy generation and storage because of its ultrahigh surface area. But questions over the in vivo safety of GO remain. These concerns will not be allayed by a recent study reporting anaphylactic shock in a small number of non-human primates exposed to apparently safe levels of GO [Yin et al., Nano Today (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2020.100922].

“Toxicological evaluation of GO has been actively pursued under the context of large-scale industrial production and the potential for clinical translation,” point out Ying Zhu of Shanghai Advanced Research Institute and Chunhai Fan of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, who led the work. “The safety of GO remains largely debated, especially due to the lack of toxicological profile in higher mammals.”

Together with coworkers at Sichuan University, Zhu and Fan investigated the impact of blood exposure to GO on mice and macaques at the maximum safe dose. The effects of two-dimensional GO were compared in similar tests to one-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and zero-dimensional nanodiamonds. To their surprise, one out of the five macaques and seven out of 121 mice tested experienced a fatal reaction to GO, which the researchers believe was induced by acute anaphylactic shock (Fig. 1). Exposure to SWCNTs or nanodiamonds did not produce a similar reaction in any of the animals.

The researchers found elevated levels of antibodies and severe lung damage in the affected animals. Other biological indicators suggest that exposure to GO caused acute liver and heart damage as well. Having found evidence of GO deposits in the lungs, the researchers compared the circulation times of the different carbon materials. While SWCNTs are largely cleared from the bloodstream of mice and monkeys in 6–12 h and nanodiamonds in 1–8 h, GO continues to circulate for up to 72 h. The researchers believe that the relative longevity of GO in the blood compared with SWCNTs and nanodiamonds could offer an explanation.

“[We believe] that long-circulation [times] and distal lung deposition contribute to the anaphylactic reaction,” say Zhu and Fan. “This study highlights the urgent need to evaluate the hypersensitivity risks of graphene,” they add.

Although exposure to GO did not result in acute or long-term adverse effects in most of the mice or macaques tested, anaphylactic reactions in some animals raise serious safety concerns.

“This suggests that case-by-case allergy tests are indispensable prior to the biomedical use of nanomaterials,” point out Zhu and Fan.

This article originally appeared in Nano Today 36 (2021) 101050.

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Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/carbon/news/go-can-cause-anaphylactic-shock-in-primates/

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Metal

New study probes boundary between 2D and 3D worlds


These images of 'islands' of gold atoms deposited on a layer of 2D molybdenum sulfide were produced by two different modes, using a scanning tunneling electron microscope in the new MIT.nano facility. By combining the data from the two different modes, the researchers were able to figure out the 3D arrangement of atoms where the two materials meet. Image courtesy of the researchers.
These images of 'islands' of gold atoms deposited on a layer of 2D molybdenum sulfide were produced by two different modes, using a scanning tunneling electron microscope in the new MIT.nano facility. By combining the data from the two different modes, the researchers were able to figure out the 3D arrangement of atoms where the two materials meet. Image courtesy of the researchers.

In recent years, engineers have found ways to modify the properties of some two-dimensional (2D) materials, which are just one or a few atoms thick, by stacking two layers together and rotating one slightly in relation to the other. This creates what are known as moiré patterns, where tiny shifts in the alignment of atoms between the two layers create larger-scale patterns. It also changes the way electrons move through the material, in potentially useful ways.

But for practical applications, such 2D materials must at some point connect with the ordinary world of three-dimensional (3D) materials. An international team led by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has now come up with a way of imaging what goes on at these interfaces, down to the level of individual atoms, and of correlating the moiré patterns at the 2D-3D boundary with the resulting changes in the material's properties.

These new findings are reported in a paper in Nature Communications. The authors are MIT graduate students Kate Reidy and Georgios Varnavides, professors of materials science and engineering Frances Ross, Jim LeBeau and Polina Anikeeva, and five others at MIT, Harvard University and the University of Victoria in Canada.

Pairs of 2D materials such as graphene or hexagonal boron nitride can exhibit amazing variations in their behavior when the two sheets are just slightly twisted relative to each other. This causes the chicken-wire-like atomic lattices to form moiré patterns, the kinds of odd bands and blobs that sometimes appear when taking a picture of a printed image or through a window screen. In the case of 2D materials, "it seems like anything, every interesting materials property you can think of, you can somehow modulate or change by twisting the 2D materials with respect to each other," says Ross.

While these 2D pairings have attracted scientific attention worldwide, little has been known about what happens when 2D materials meet regular 3D solids. "What got us interested in this topic," Ross says, was "what happens when a 2D material and a 3D material are put together. Firstly, how do you measure the atomic positions at, and near, the interface? Secondly, what are the differences between a 3D-2D and a 2D-2D interface? And thirdly, how you might control it – is there a way to deliberately design the interfacial structure" to produce desired properties?

Figuring out exactly what happens at such 2D-3D interfaces was a daunting challenge because electron microscopes produce an image of the sample in projection, and they're limited in their ability to extract the depth information needed to analyze details of the interface structure. But the team figured out a set of algorithms that allowed them to extrapolate back from images of the sample, which look somewhat like a set of overlapping shadows, to determine which configuration of stacked layers would yield that complex 'shadow'.

The team made use of two unique transmission electron microscopes at MIT that possess a combination of capabilities unrivalled in the world. In one of these instruments, a microscope is connected directly to a fabrication system, so that samples can be produced onsite by deposition processes and immediately fed straight into the imaging system. This is one of only a few such facilities worldwide, which uses an ultrahigh vacuum system that prevents even the tiniest of impurities from contaminating the sample as the 2D-3D interface is being prepared.

The second instrument is a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) located in MIT's new research facility, MIT.nano. This microscope has outstanding stability for high-resolution imaging, as well as multiple imaging modes for collecting information about the sample.

Unlike stacked 2D materials, whose orientations can be relatively easily changed by simply picking up one layer, twisting it slightly, and placing it down again, the bonds holding 3D materials together are much stronger, so the team had to develop new ways for obtaining aligned layers. To do this, they added the 3D material onto the 2D material in ultrahigh vacuum, choosing growth conditions where the layers self-assembled in a reproducible orientation with specific degrees of twist. "We had to grow a structure that was going to be aligned in a certain way," Reidy says.

Having grown the materials, they then had to figure out how to reveal the atomic configurations and orientations of the different layers. A scanning transmission electron microscope actually produces more information than is apparent in a flat image. In fact, every point in the image contains details of the paths along which the electrons arrived and departed (the process of diffraction), as well as any energy that the electrons lost in the process. All these data can be separated out so that the information at all points in an image can be used to decode the actual solid structure. This process is only possible for state-of-the-art microscopes, such as the one in MIT.nano, which can generate a probe of electrons that is unusually narrow and precise.

By combining 4D STEM with integrated differential phase contrast, the researchers were able to extract the full structure at the interface from the image. According to Varnavides, they then asked, "Now that we can image the full structure at the interface, what does this mean for our understanding of the properties of this interface?"

The researchers showed through modeling that the electronic properties should be modified in a way that can only be understood if the full structure of the interface is included in the physical theory. "What we found is that indeed this stacking, the way the atoms are stacked out-of-plane, does modulate the electronic and charge density properties," Varnavides says.

Ross says the findings could help lead to improved kinds of junctions in some microchips, for example. "Every 2D material that's used in a device has to exist in the 3D world, and so it has to have a junction somehow with three-dimensional materials," she says. So, with this better understanding of those interfaces, and new ways to study them in action, "we're in good shape for making structures with desirable properties in a kind of planned rather than ad hoc way."

“The present work opens a field by itself, allowing the application of this methodology to the growing research line of moiré engineering, highly important in fields such as quantum physics or even in catalysis,” says Jordi Arbiol of the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Spain, who was not associated with this work.

"The methodology used has the potential to calculate from the acquired local diffraction patterns the modulation of the local electron momentum," he says, adding that "the methodology and research shown here has an outstanding future and high interest for the materials science community."

This story is adapted from material from MIT, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

Republished by Plato

Published

on


These images of 'islands' of gold atoms deposited on a layer of 2D molybdenum sulfide were produced by two different modes, using a scanning tunneling electron microscope in the new MIT.nano facility. By combining the data from the two different modes, the researchers were able to figure out the 3D arrangement of atoms where the two materials meet. Image courtesy of the researchers.
These images of ‘islands’ of gold atoms deposited on a layer of 2D molybdenum sulfide were produced by two different modes, using a scanning tunneling electron microscope in the new MIT.nano facility. By combining the data from the two different modes, the researchers were able to figure out the 3D arrangement of atoms where the two materials meet. Image courtesy of the researchers.

In recent years, engineers have found ways to modify the properties of some two-dimensional (2D) materials, which are just one or a few atoms thick, by stacking two layers together and rotating one slightly in relation to the other. This creates what are known as moiré patterns, where tiny shifts in the alignment of atoms between the two layers create larger-scale patterns. It also changes the way electrons move through the material, in potentially useful ways.

But for practical applications, such 2D materials must at some point connect with the ordinary world of three-dimensional (3D) materials. An international team led by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has now come up with a way of imaging what goes on at these interfaces, down to the level of individual atoms, and of correlating the moiré patterns at the 2D-3D boundary with the resulting changes in the material’s properties.

These new findings are reported in a paper in Nature Communications. The authors are MIT graduate students Kate Reidy and Georgios Varnavides, professors of materials science and engineering Frances Ross, Jim LeBeau and Polina Anikeeva, and five others at MIT, Harvard University and the University of Victoria in Canada.

Pairs of 2D materials such as graphene or hexagonal boron nitride can exhibit amazing variations in their behavior when the two sheets are just slightly twisted relative to each other. This causes the chicken-wire-like atomic lattices to form moiré patterns, the kinds of odd bands and blobs that sometimes appear when taking a picture of a printed image or through a window screen. In the case of 2D materials, “it seems like anything, every interesting materials property you can think of, you can somehow modulate or change by twisting the 2D materials with respect to each other,” says Ross.

While these 2D pairings have attracted scientific attention worldwide, little has been known about what happens when 2D materials meet regular 3D solids. “What got us interested in this topic,” Ross says, was “what happens when a 2D material and a 3D material are put together. Firstly, how do you measure the atomic positions at, and near, the interface? Secondly, what are the differences between a 3D-2D and a 2D-2D interface? And thirdly, how you might control it – is there a way to deliberately design the interfacial structure” to produce desired properties?

Figuring out exactly what happens at such 2D-3D interfaces was a daunting challenge because electron microscopes produce an image of the sample in projection, and they’re limited in their ability to extract the depth information needed to analyze details of the interface structure. But the team figured out a set of algorithms that allowed them to extrapolate back from images of the sample, which look somewhat like a set of overlapping shadows, to determine which configuration of stacked layers would yield that complex ‘shadow’.

The team made use of two unique transmission electron microscopes at MIT that possess a combination of capabilities unrivalled in the world. In one of these instruments, a microscope is connected directly to a fabrication system, so that samples can be produced onsite by deposition processes and immediately fed straight into the imaging system. This is one of only a few such facilities worldwide, which uses an ultrahigh vacuum system that prevents even the tiniest of impurities from contaminating the sample as the 2D-3D interface is being prepared.

The second instrument is a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) located in MIT’s new research facility, MIT.nano. This microscope has outstanding stability for high-resolution imaging, as well as multiple imaging modes for collecting information about the sample.

Unlike stacked 2D materials, whose orientations can be relatively easily changed by simply picking up one layer, twisting it slightly, and placing it down again, the bonds holding 3D materials together are much stronger, so the team had to develop new ways for obtaining aligned layers. To do this, they added the 3D material onto the 2D material in ultrahigh vacuum, choosing growth conditions where the layers self-assembled in a reproducible orientation with specific degrees of twist. “We had to grow a structure that was going to be aligned in a certain way,” Reidy says.

Having grown the materials, they then had to figure out how to reveal the atomic configurations and orientations of the different layers. A scanning transmission electron microscope actually produces more information than is apparent in a flat image. In fact, every point in the image contains details of the paths along which the electrons arrived and departed (the process of diffraction), as well as any energy that the electrons lost in the process. All these data can be separated out so that the information at all points in an image can be used to decode the actual solid structure. This process is only possible for state-of-the-art microscopes, such as the one in MIT.nano, which can generate a probe of electrons that is unusually narrow and precise.

By combining 4D STEM with integrated differential phase contrast, the researchers were able to extract the full structure at the interface from the image. According to Varnavides, they then asked, “Now that we can image the full structure at the interface, what does this mean for our understanding of the properties of this interface?”

The researchers showed through modeling that the electronic properties should be modified in a way that can only be understood if the full structure of the interface is included in the physical theory. “What we found is that indeed this stacking, the way the atoms are stacked out-of-plane, does modulate the electronic and charge density properties,” Varnavides says.

Ross says the findings could help lead to improved kinds of junctions in some microchips, for example. “Every 2D material that’s used in a device has to exist in the 3D world, and so it has to have a junction somehow with three-dimensional materials,” she says. So, with this better understanding of those interfaces, and new ways to study them in action, “we’re in good shape for making structures with desirable properties in a kind of planned rather than ad hoc way.”

“The present work opens a field by itself, allowing the application of this methodology to the growing research line of moiré engineering, highly important in fields such as quantum physics or even in catalysis,” says Jordi Arbiol of the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Spain, who was not associated with this work.

“The methodology used has the potential to calculate from the acquired local diffraction patterns the modulation of the local electron momentum,” he says, adding that “the methodology and research shown here has an outstanding future and high interest for the materials science community.”

This story is adapted from material from MIT, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

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Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/characterization/news/new-study-probes-boundary-between-2d-and-3d-worlds/

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Metal

Brazil’s motor vehicle output up 0.2 percent in January-February

Brazil’s motor vehicle output (excluding agricultural vehicles) in February this year fell by 3.5 percent year on year to 197,035 units.

Republished by Plato

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Brazil’s motor vehicle output (excluding agricultural vehicles) in February this year decreased by 1.3 percent from the previous month and fell by 3.5 percent year on year to 197,035 units, according to the Brazilian Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (Anfavea). Meanwhile, in the January-February period this year, the country’s motor vehicle output (excluding agricultural vehicles) increased by 0.2 percent year on year to 396,742 units.

New motor vehicle registrations (excluding agricultural vehicles) in Brazil totaled 167,391 units in February this year, decreasing by 2.2 percent when compared to January and decreasing by 16.7 percent year on year. In the January-February period, the country’s new motor vehicle registrations (excluding agricultural vehicles) fell by 14.2 percent year on year to 338,537 units.

Meanwhile, Brazil’s motor vehicle exports in February (excluding agricultural vehicles) totaled 33,064 units, increasing by 32.0 percent compared to the previous month and down by 12.2 percent year on year. In the first two months of the current year, Brazil’s motor vehicle exports totaled 58,104 units, down by 0.2 percent year on year.

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Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-news/latest-news/brazils-motor-vehicle-output-up-02-percent-in-january_february-1189325.htm

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