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Factors affecting the formation of plasma on Fe, Cu and W electrodes using an electrochemical reaction in an aqueous environment with high-voltage DC

Publication date: Available online 5 January 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Author(s): Tran Van Cong, Nguyen Duc Hung, Lai Xuan Bach, Tran van Hung, Nam Nguyen Dang

Republished by Plato

Published

on


Elsevier

Available online 5 January 2021

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

open access

Highlights

Formation of plasma on Fe, Cu and W electrodes using electrochemical reaction in aqueous environment.

Plasma appears at a high voltage of about 15 kV with the earliest appearance on W electrode.

Water-soluble plasma on W electrode produces more gases than those in Fe and Cu electrodes.

The size of Cu and Fe nanoparticles is approximate 200 nm, whereas 100 and 500 nm were for W.

Abstract

Plasma creation technology in an aqueous environment is being evaluated for research and practical applications, particularly in the field of materials and nano processing, as well as environmental pollution treatment. Important factors that influence the appearance of plasma when performing electrolysis by high-voltage DC (direct current) in aqueous environments are voltage, distance between electrodes, pH, conductivity and ambient temperature, as well as the nature of the electrode, which has been suggested by concurrent works to be the controlling factor of the other ones. Specifically, it is indicated that the plasma typically appears at a high voltage of about 15 kV and a distance between electrodes of 200 mm, with the earliest appearance occurring with the tungsten (W) electrode. Additionally, pH, conductivity and temperature variations for effective plasma creation have been found in all investigated electrodes. Finally, it has been found that the water-soluble plasma on the W electrode produces more gas than those in iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) electrodes. After the reactions, the lowest dissolution belonging to W electrode could be attributed to the inertness of W in comparison with Fe and Cu, resulting in a minimal value of the zeta potential. In addition, the size of Cu and Fe nanoparticles achieved in the investigated solution was approximately 200 nm, whereas W nanoparticles were two separate sizes of 100 and 500 nm. Therefore, this work could offer the needed agency for technological applications in industrial wastewater treatment and high-purity nanoparticle fabrication.

Keywords

Plasma electrode

Copper

Iron

Tungsten

High voltage electrochemistry

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785420321748?dgcid=rss_sd_all

Material

Solar Light Irradiated Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO-NiO/rGO Nanocatalyst

Publication date: Available online 6 March 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Author(s): Sheraz Yousaf, Sonia Zulfiqar, Muhammad Imran Din, Philips O. Agboola, Mohamed F. Aly Aboud, Muhammad Farooq Warsi, Imran Shakir

Republished by Plato

Published

on


Elsevier

Available online 6 March 2021

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

open access

Abstract

The current study is based on the synthesis and characterization of ZnO-NiO/rGO nanohybrid for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. The physicochemical properties of synthesized products were estimated by x-rays diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy. The diffraction data showed the formation of binary metal oxide nanocomposite, containing ZnO in hexagonal whereas NiO in the cubic crystalline phase. XRD results revealed that the calculated crystallite size of NiO and ZnO in the ZnO-NiO nanocomposite was < 20 nm. The spectroscopic results were found in close agreement with XRD data. The morphological analysis exposed the nano-island morphology of the product. The solar light assisted photocatalytic degradation outcomes showed 89% degradation of methylene blue and 51% degradation of benzimidazole under similar conditions using ZnO-NiO/rGO nanohybrid. Moreover, the active species experiment showed that hydroxyl radicals, electrons, and holes were the main active species during the degradation mechanism. In contrast to the ZnO-NiO nanocomposite, the ZnO-NiO/rGO nanohybrid exhibited greater degradation efficiency. This superb photocatalytic performance of ZnO-NiO/rGO nanohybrid proved to be a durable candidate in the field of catalysis.

Keywords

Solar Light Irradiation

Photocatalyst

rGO

Nanohybrid

Degradation Efficiency

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785421002386?dgcid=rss_sd_all

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Material

Fracture prediction of powder metallurgical Fe-Cu-C steel at elevated temperatures via finite element-aided hot tensile tests

Publication date: Available online 5 March 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Author(s): Qiang Li, Biao Guo, Xiao Li, Yu Zhang, Jie Jian, Jinqing Ao, Qifeng Tang, Yun Lu

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Elsevier

Available online 5 March 2021

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

open access

Abstract

Surface cracking induced by damage accumulation is a common quality problem during the hot processing of powder metallurgical (P/M) products. This study aims to clarify the damage and fracture of P/M Fe-Cu-C steel at elevated temperatures to propose its fracture criterion by combining hot tensile tests with finite element (FE) calculations. The results reveal that the FE-aided test accurately corrected the true stress and strain of the P/M steel during the Gleeble hot tensile testing. In addition, the flow behaviors and cracking tendency of the P/M steel strongly depended on the hot deformation parameters. The optimum hot processing window of P/M steel was proposed after determining the quantitative relationships between the damage and hot deformation parameters. Finally, a novel elevated temperature fracture strain model of the P/M steel was proposed based on the Zener–Hollomon parameter to construct its Cockroft and Latham fracture criterion coupling hot processing parameters. The constructed fracture criterion was further normalized and modified, and achieved an acceptable fracture predictive capability with a relative error of less than 5 %, which was validated by powder forging experiments. This work provides essential information and a useful model for the fracture prediction of P/M Fe-Cu-C steel at elevated temperatures, helping to manage the surface cracking problems of P/M steel during hot processing.

Keywords

powder metallurgy

hot processing

finite element-aided test

hot tensile

fracture prediction

© 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785421002349?dgcid=rss_sd_all

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Material

Microstructural study of the nano-scale martensitic lamellar α-Co and ε-Co phases of a Co-Cr alloy fabricated by selective laser melting

Publication date: Available online 6 March 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Author(s): Hyung Giun Kim, Won Rae Kim, Hyun Woong Park, Gyung Bae Bang, Kyung-Hwan Jung, Yong Son, Sung Hwan Lim

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Elsevier

Available online 6 March 2021

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

open access

Abstract

An interfacial microstructural study was carried out to clarify the hardening mechanism of an as-built Co-Cr alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). Using transmission electron microscopy, we found a unique martensitic lamellar microstructure with a specific orientation relationship between the α-Co and ε-Co phases; specifically, a nanoscale microstructure consisting of (111)α-Co//(000

2¯

)ε-Co and [0

1¯

1]α-Co//[

1¯

2

1¯

0]ε-Co was formed on the Co-Cr alloy. The Co-Cr alloy fabricated by SLM with a martensitic microstructure achieved a Vickers hardness value of approximately 369.36 ± 11.86 HV without any secondary-phase particles such as carbides.

Keywords

Co-Cr alloy

Selective laser melting

Microstructure

Transmission electron microscopy

Orientation relationship

© 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785421002325?dgcid=rss_sd_all

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