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Effects of Soluble Lignin on the Formic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of Furfural: A Case Study for the Upgrading of Hemicellulose

A comprehensive study is presented on the conversion of hemicellulose sugars in liquors obtained from the fractionation of Miscanthus, spruce bark, sawdust, and hemp by using formic acid. Experimental tests with varying temperature (130-170 °C), formic acid concentration (10-80 wt%), carbohydrate concentrations, and lignin separation were carried out, and experimental data were compared with predictions obtained by reaction kinetics developed in a previous study. The conversions of xylose and…

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A comprehensive study is presented on the conversion of hemicellulose sugars in liquors obtained from the fractionation of Miscanthus, spruce bark, sawdust, and hemp by using formic acid. Experimental tests with varying temperature (130-170 °C), formic acid concentration (10-80 wt%), carbohydrate concentrations, and lignin separation were carried out, and experimental data were compared with predictions obtained by reaction kinetics developed in a previous study. The conversions of xylose and arabinose into furfural were inherently affected by the presence of polymeric soluble lignin, decreasing the maximum furfural yields observed experimentally by up to 24%. These results were also confirmed in synthetic mixtures of pentoses with Miscanthus and commercial alkali lignin. This observation was attributed to side reactions involving intermediate stable sugar species reacting with solubilized lignin during the conversion of xylose into furfural.

Keywords: biomass; carbohydrates; kinetics; lignin; synthesis design.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26805656/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1XAOX_jnjTyCUo06Xbq0lslwi760CIxcWfQx0n9x5BPH5yV1sN&fc=20200804212910&ff=20200812014057&v=2.11.5

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CBD and Menopause

Menopause is a natural aging process. Navigating through this phase with lifestyle improvements and…

The post CBD and Menopause appeared first on Nordic Oil Blog.

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Menopause is a natural aging process. Navigating through this phase with lifestyle improvements and a positive approach could make a lot of difference. Has CBD got a role to play? Let us discuss further. 

The tall list of symptoms associated with menopause makes us worried, anxious, and pessimistic. So I am eager to share some insights on taking a positive approach to this stereotypical thinking around menopause.

Are hot flashes, weight gain, lowered sex drive, sleep troubles, mood swings, annoying you?!  

Come on! Pat yourself, thank your body for having taken you this far, smile, and get set for yet another transformation.

“Menopause is a path that is guiding you towards wisdom, higher spirituality, and finding your Ikigai.”

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Therefore, consider this post as a discussion guide to improve your understanding of menopause and make informed decisions about using CBD to handle the discomforts during this phase of life. 

  • Is CBD beneficial for menopause?
  • Does CBD help balance hormones?
  • Which CBD is good?
  • Menopause Diet Ideas
  • What does science say about CBD and women’s health? 
  • Menopause and Andropause: Some Insights

Is CBD beneficial for menopause?

Firstly, let us understand that menopause is a natural transformation process for your mind, body, and soul. So, how about artistically approaching this phase of life with the help of scientific methods? Could it help discover new perspectives while combating the annoying menopausal symptoms with ease?

There is a wide range of symptoms that menopause displays. Physical symptoms include vasomotor symptoms (commonly known as hot flashes), night sweats, sleep disturbances, weight gain due to decreased metabolism, urinary incontinence, dizziness, headaches, loss of bone density, joint pain, breast tenderness, hair growth in unwanted parts, and more.

Additionally, mental troubles include mood changes, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and so on. Also, vaginal dryness and declining estrogen levels lower your sex drive. 

Now, looking at the suitability of CBD products to these menopause symptoms, anecdotal and self-reported surveys of women using CBD oil for managing insomnia, hormonal imbalances, and mental stress are worth considering.

For example, medical experts opine that cannabinoids could help manage the triggers of hot flashes. Aging women age are susceptible to high stress and uncertainty, which leaves them anxious. Therefore, practitioners report that women who have adopted CBD products have responded well.

Similarly, reference from another anecdotal information records that women find comfort from insomnia and hot flashes when using CBD products. And consider them as alternatives to opioids and NSAID class painkillers.Moreover, clinical interventions such as hormonal therapy are effective treatments for menopause symptoms, inhibiting bone loss, reducing fracture incidence in postmenopausal women, and restraining long-term estrogen deficiency.  But hormone replacement therapy does cause side effects depending on your age, medical history, and condition.

Does CBD help balance hormones?

In general hormonal imbalances could affect both men and women, mostly during their middle ages. And the resulting conditions can be overwhelming. The endocrine system consists of glands responsible for producing hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, mood, and sexual health. Hence fluctuations in these hormones give rise to health conditions including diabetes, thyroid disorders, obesity, osteoporosis, PCOS, and more. 

When it comes to women, puberty, pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause are significant biological events that trigger hormonal fluctuations.

  • A 2018 study reports the interconnection between the endocannabinoid system and the functions of the endocrine system. Cannabis-derived compounds exert their effects by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors. 
  • Another study points that CBD interferes with cortisol secretion,
  • Estrogen and the endocannabinoid system have direct and indirect interactions. The endocannabinoid system impacts the release of estrogen through central down-regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

Recommended reading: How does CBD interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

It is important to note that there is no reference to clinical trials on managing menopause with cannabis products. Despite the popular applicability of CBD products in multitude of domains, this topic has received limited research attention.

Which CBD product is good for menopause?

CBD products are available in several forms that give you the convenience of personalizing it according to your needs. That includes CBD oils, CBD capsules, CBD vape liquids, CBD supplements, CBD topicals, and more.

  • In which route can I take my CBD? 
  • What CBD dosage could provide me relief?

These are the two questions that you may find solutions to from your personal experience.For example, women in the perimenopause phase (six months to one year) is the transitional phase where considerable hormone fluctuations occur. So, this period could display most of the symptoms in a much-pronounced manner.

Here are a few options for you to consider while choosing your CBD:

  • Full-spectrum CBD oils contain all the cannabinoids and terpenes that could give you the entourage effect. You could sublingually take a few drops as recommended. Or you could add them to your food and take them twice or thrice in a day. It could take 15-20 minutes to get absorbed, and the effect could last between 4-6 hours. 
  • If you are a new user to CBD, start low. Micro dosing may be an effective method to keep you active throughout the day.
  • CBD liposomal capsules are also a good choice. The onset time could be a little longer, say, roughly an hour ( 60 minutes), but its effect can last for 6-10 hours.
  • For experienced users, CBD concentrates could provide a quicker onset time to get absorbed by the bloodstream. 
  • Vaporizing may not be suggested for women who are undergoing hormone replacement therapies or other complications.
  • Studies have shown that phytocannabinoids and terpenes interaction produces a synergistic effect. Terpenes such as Myrcene, Linalool, Caryophyllene help manage pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, and bacterial infections.

Ultimately, you can choose how you prefer to take your CBD based on the symptoms that need the most attention. Consult with your medical expert to give you a suggestion about the appropriate dosage that suits you, considering your intake of other medications.

Menopause Diet – Some Ideas

Planning a good diet could save you from a lot of troubles. Your perfect menopause diet should provide you with:

  • adequate nutrition,
  • check fluctuating sugar levels that can help maintain weight
  • improve hormonal balance and reduce inflammation.

Therefore to attain the above diet goals:

  • Include fiber-rich food such as oats, brown rice, millets, and whole grains.
  • Liberally take fruits such as papaya, apples, kiwi, guava, and vegetables such as carrots, beetroots, bell peppers, broccoli.  
  • Studies suggest that intake of lignans shows a 15% decreased risk in post-menopausal women.  You can find dietary Lignans in cereals and oilseeds. 
  • Increase lignans intake from sources such as wheat, oat, barley, and rye cereals. Also include oilseeds such as flax seeds, sesame seeds, and hemp seeds. These are also rich in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids that help maintain hormonal balance.  
  • Phytoestrogen-rich foods help tackle weakened bones due to estrogen deficiency. They include Tofu and Fish such as Tuna, Salmon, and Mackerel. Similarly, soy milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese, green leafy vegetables, spinach, kale, may help improve vaginal dryness and bone loss.
  • Vitamin B6, Calcium, Protein, B complex in the form of supplements could be helpful.

Now, you have a chance to generously treat yourself with a portion of nutritious food every day. Go ahead! Be creative and infuse CBD oil in your smoothies, salads, pasta, and sandwiches, and keep yourself feeling good.

Not to forget, avoid caffeine, tea, alcohol, tobacco, refined food, sugary confectionery, and spicy food as these could make you acidic. Acidity could eventually affect your bone health and aggravate your condition.

What does science say?

The three phases include Perimenopause, Menopause, and Post-menopause. This prolonged period affects the quality of life of women. There are little to no studies that focus on the applicability of CBD to handle the troublesome symptoms that accompany this phase.

Available observational and clinical studies provide data only around menopause, hormone replacement therapy, and breast cancer. But, women’s health issues such as puberty, pregnancy, and menopause need more attention.

Therefore, there is a need for more conclusive reports to substantiate the use of CBD and if CBD could help in alleviating specific health conditions.

Menopause and Andropause: Some Insights

The mid-life crisis affects both men and women.  

While women experience a decline in estrogen levels, andropause affects 50 years and older men who experience a drop in testosterone levels. 

But andropause is a debatable topic. Studies say that not all men undergo this phase, even though the symptoms are similar to what women face. Hot flashes, reduced sex drive, depression, mood changes, and anxiety could affect men in their mid-life in their early 40’s.

Studies say that men process pain and aging differently. That is why maybe they avoid talking about it. CBD could help them too in handling uncomfortable symptoms. So, do support your better half, brother, or friend if they need your support in handling andropause.

 Wrap up

  • The average menopause age is 51.2years, but perimenopause symptoms begin 3-5 years earlier. Moreover, studies say that race, ethnicity, lifestyle, and demographic factors affect the onset age.
  • Scientific studies are yet to certify cannabis products for handling menopause symptoms. But increasing self-reported surveys from women show interest in CBD to manage their mid-life crisis.
  • Micro-dosing of CBD could be an effective method to keep the body comfortable throughout the day.
  • Kegel exercises, specific yoga asanas such as Adho Mukha Svanasana, Uttana Shishosana, could provide relief from sleep disturbances, reduce anxiety and help improve sleep. Similarly, research emphasizes complementary health practices such as hypnosis, mindfulness meditation, tai chi combined with botanicals and natural supplements for women who seek alternative remedies.
  • Ultimately, brush aside all the inconveniences and think of the bright side. Rediscover the new you! How about trying our CBD cosmetics range that not only pampers your senses but also integrates all the benefits of CBD.

Share this post with a friend of yours and improve your positive karmic footprint. Stay social and subscribe to our newsletters.

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Source: https://nordicoil.com/blog/cbd-and-menopause/

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Anyone a fan of thoughtcloud?

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I was using it previously as my ex gave me a bottle and now I want to give cbd to my father who was just diagnosed with cancer.

However I cannot find anything online on this company. Seems they are from Colorado and have a variety of cannabinoids including CBG which is also of interest to me however outside of their site and a few instagram affiliates there is not much info. You can scan the qr code but it seems to lead to one batch test.

Does anyone have more info on them? Im wondering if I should find a different brand to give my father

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Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/lw382m/anyone_a_fan_of_thoughtcloud/

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Lowell Farms Q4 Revenue Declines 15% to $9.2 Million

Lowell Farms Inc., Formerly Known as Indus Holdings, Inc., Announces Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 2020 Results Vertically-Integrated Cannabis Leader Doubles Down on Path to Scalability and Self-Sustaining Profitability With a Renewed Go-Forward Strategy SALINAS, Calif., March 02, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Lowell Farms Inc. (the “Company”) (CSE: INDS converting to LOWL; OTCQX: INDXF to LOWLF effective […]

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Lowell Farms Inc., Formerly Known as Indus Holdings, Inc., Announces Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 2020 Results

Vertically-Integrated Cannabis Leader Doubles Down on Path to Scalability and Self-Sustaining Profitability With a Renewed Go-Forward Strategy

SALINAS, Calif., March 02, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Lowell Farms Inc. (the “Company”) (CSE: INDS converting to LOWL; OTCQX: INDXF to LOWLF effective March 5, 2021), a leading, vertically-integrated, California-focused cannabis company, announced revenue and operating results for the fourth quarter and fiscal year (ended December 31, 2020). All figures stated are in US Dollars.

Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year Financial Highlights:

  • Revenue generated for the three-month period ended December 31, 2020, was $9.2 million; a decline of 15% from the fourth quarter last year. Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020, was $42.6 million; 15% year-over-year growth.
  • Adjusted EBITDA for the three-month period ended December 31, 2020, was ($3.7 million) compared to ($13.2 million) in the fourth quarter last year; Adjusted EBITDA for the year-end December 31, 2020, was ($9.8 million) compared to ($36.0 million) in 2019. See “Use of Non-IFRS Financial Information” below.
  • Operating expenses were $5.5 million for the three-month period ended December 31, 2020, compared to $12.0 million in the fourth quarter in the prior year. For the year ended December 31, 2020, operating expenses were $20.6 million; a decline of 45% from 2019.
  • Gross margin (before net change in fair value of biological assets) of 8% compared to negative margin of 40% in the fourth quarter last year. For the year ended December 31, 2020, gross margin (before net change in fair value of biological assets) was 11% compared to negative margin of 23% in 2019. See “Use of Non-IFRS Financial Information” below.
  • Operating loss before net change in fair value of biological assets of $4.8 million compared to operating loss of $14.0 million in Q4 2019. For the year ended December 31, 2020, operating loss before net change in fair value of biological assets was $16.1 million compared to an operating loss before net change in fair value of biological assets of $45.8 million in 2019. See “Use of Non-IFRS Financial Information” below.

The declined revenue and operating results in the quarter are primarily the direct result of suppressed cultivation yields resulting from the wildfires and extreme temperatures in late summer, and the resultant plant stress that ensued.

Despite the headwinds encountered last year, we have much to look ahead and our shift in strategy to acquire Lowell Herb Co and become Lowell Farms will position us for the future.

Mark Ainsworth, Chief Executive Officer for Lowell Farms Inc

Our team has shown tenacity and drive to get to where we are, and I know what we are capable of achieving when all cylinders are turned on and we are executing to the best of our capacities. The future is bright for Lowell Farms and I can’t wait to share more with you as we solidify our positioning within the California market.

Operational Highlights and Ongoing Initiatives in 2021:
The Company’s focus and strategic planning of key initiatives continue to drive sustainable profitable growth, with top priorities on its cultivation facilities, improving operational efficiency, and refinement of biological assets.

Subsequent events to the fiscal third quarter December 31, 2020:

  • Indus Holdings, Inc. Welcomes Bruce Gates to Board of Directors; Announces Results of Annual Shareholder Meeting
    • October 22, 2020 – Press release here
  • Indus Holdings, Inc. Appoints Board Member Brian Shure as Chief Financial Officer, Steve Neil will remain at the Company in a senior capacity
    • November 9, 2020 – Press release here
  • Indus Holdings, Inc. announces the acquisition of Lowell Herbs Co
    • February 25, 2021 – Press release here
  • Cultivation Quality and Efficiency:
    • As the Company continues to evaluate its cultivation processes, refine genetics, and enhance facilities and systems, the focus has been on improving the output.
      • The Company successfully completed the electrical, mechanical, and environmental upgrades with final approval from the county in the quarter. The environmental upgrades will help mitigate implications experienced from the wildfires and extreme temperatures experienced in the summer.
      • Lowell Farms is actively exploring tissue culture clones in order to expand and refine its strain selection.
    • Portfolio of strains coming from the newly improved cultivation have consistently tested in the mid to high 20’s for THC potency.
      • Continued yield improvements are expected to be seen as the environmental control system has been installed and implemented.
    • In Q4, Indus commissioned an automated flower packaging line which meant an immediate 61% reduction in flower packing headcount.
      • When fully optimized, the reduction will generate two times the productivity from 50 lbs. per shift to 100 lbs. per shift.
  • Owned Core Brands:
    • Owned brands continue to gain market share by strategically expanding in a variety of categories in the fourth the quarter of 2020:
      • Flavor was the number four Concentrate brand in Q4 2020 and single handedly made up 6% of all concentrate units sold during Q4 2020.
    • Expanding portfolio of products:
      • The Company is working on expanding existing brands into new categories while also growing its brand portfolio to engage with new consumers and create additional revenue streams.
      • We launched 11 net new sku’s.
  • Distribution Capabilities:
    • In an effort to simplify and refocus the business on owned brands, the Company has continued to move away from the agency and distribution aspects of its business.
    • In order to process the increased flower from its renovated cultivation, Indus has submitted for a cultivation and processing license application for warehouse facilities. Plans for construction of the post-harvest processing space are underway and have been submitted and approved by the City.

Q4 and Fiscal Year Financial Results Earnings Conference Call Details:
The conference call with management at 8:30 a.m. ET on Tuesday, March 2, can be accessed using the following dial-in information

U.S. and Canadian Toll Free: 1-877-407-0789
International: 1-201-689-8562
Conference ID: 13716552
Webcast: http://public.viavid.com/index.php?id=143565
Please dial-in at least 10 minutes before the call to register.

The conference call will be webcast live and archived on the investor relations section of the Lowell Farms website at https://ir.indusholdingco.com/.

ABOUT LOWELL FARMS

Lowell Farms (CSE:LOWL; OTCQX:LOWLF) is California-based vertically-integrated cannabis company with advanced production capabilities supporting every step of the supply chain; including cultivation, extraction, manufacturing, brand sales, marketing, and distribution. Founded in 2014 as Indus Holdings, Inc, Lowell Farms grows artisan craft cannabis with a deep love and respect for the plant and prides itself on using sustainable materials – from seed to sale – to produce an extensive portfolio of award-winning original and licensed brands, including Lowell Herb Co, Cypress Cannabis, MOON, Humble Flower, and Kaizen Medicinals, for licensed retailers statewide.

Original Press Release

Published by NCV Newswire
NCV Newswire
The NCV Newswire by New Cannabis Ventures aims to curate high quality content and information about leading cannabis companies to help our readers filter out the noise and to stay on top of the most important cannabis business news. The NCV Newswire is hand-curated by an editor and not automated in anyway. Have a confidential news tip? Get in touch.


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Source: https://www.newcannabisventures.com/lowell-farms-q4-revenue-declines-15-to-9-2-million/

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