The Achilles heel of thermoplastic natural fibre composites is their limited durability. The environmental degradation of the mechanical properties of hemp and hemp/basalt hybrid-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites has been investigated with a special focus on the effects of water ageing and accelerated ageing, including hygrothermal and UV radiation. Modification of the matrix was carried out using a maleic anhydride high-density polyethylene copolymer (MAPE) as a compatibilizer. Hybridization of hemp fibres with basalt fibres and the incorporation of MAPE were found to significantly decrease the water uptake (up to 75%) and increase the retention of mechanical properties after accelerated ageing. Secondary crystallization phenomena occurring in the composites, as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, were able to counteract the severe combined effects of hygrothermal stress and UV radiation, with the exception of hemp-fibre composites where permanent damage to the fibres occurred, with 2% and 20% reduction in tensile strength and modulus, respectively, for a 30 wt % hemp fibre-reinforced HDPE.
Keywords: basalt fibres; durability; environmental degradation; hemp fibres; hybrid; natural fibres; polymer-matrix composites.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Global Pet CBD(cannabidiol) Market Size, Status and Forecast 2025
1 Market Overview
2 Manufacturers Profiles
3 Global Pet CBD(cannabidiol) Sales, Revenue, Market Share and Competition by Manufacturer
4 Global Pet CBD(cannabidiol) Market Analysis by Regions
5 North America Pet CBD(cannabidiol) by Countries
6 Europe Pet CBD(cannabidiol) by Countries
7 Asia-Pacific Pet CBD(cannabidiol) by Countries
8 South America Pet CBD(cannabidiol) by Countries
9 Middle East and Africa Pet CBD(cannabidiol) by Countries
10 Global Pet CBD(cannabidiol) Market Segment by Type
11 Global Pet CBD(cannabidiol) Market Segment by Application
12 Pet CBD(cannabidiol) Market Forecast
13 Sales Channel, Distributors, Traders and Dealers
14 Research Findings and Conclusion
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