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Durability of Basalt/Hemp Hybrid Thermoplastic Composites

The Achilles heel of thermoplastic natural fibre composites is their limited durability. The environmental degradation of the mechanical properties of hemp and hemp/basalt hybrid-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites has been investigated with a special focus on the effects of water ageing and accelerated ageing, including hygrothermal and UV radiation. Modification of the matrix was carried out using a maleic anhydride high-density polyethylene copolymer (MAPE) as a…

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. 2019 Apr 2;11(4):603.

doi: 10.3390/polym11040603.

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Claudia Sergi et al. Polymers (Basel). .

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Abstract

The Achilles heel of thermoplastic natural fibre composites is their limited durability. The environmental degradation of the mechanical properties of hemp and hemp/basalt hybrid-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites has been investigated with a special focus on the effects of water ageing and accelerated ageing, including hygrothermal and UV radiation. Modification of the matrix was carried out using a maleic anhydride high-density polyethylene copolymer (MAPE) as a compatibilizer. Hybridization of hemp fibres with basalt fibres and the incorporation of MAPE were found to significantly decrease the water uptake (up to 75%) and increase the retention of mechanical properties after accelerated ageing. Secondary crystallization phenomena occurring in the composites, as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, were able to counteract the severe combined effects of hygrothermal stress and UV radiation, with the exception of hemp-fibre composites where permanent damage to the fibres occurred, with 2% and 20% reduction in tensile strength and modulus, respectively, for a 30 wt % hemp fibre-reinforced HDPE.

Keywords: basalt fibres; durability; environmental degradation; hemp fibres; hybrid; natural fibres; polymer-matrix composites.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

Water absorption curves of the different composites at room temperature.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and hemp/basalt fibre hybrid composites before and after water ageing.

Figure 3

Figure 3

SEM micrographs detailing the fracture surface of water-aged composites, reinforced with 30 wt % of hemp fibres without (a,c,e) and with (b,d,f) a coupling agent.

Figure 4

Figure 4

SEM micrographs detailing the fracture surface of water-aged composites, reinforced with 30 wt % of basalt fibres without (a,c,e) and with (b,d,f) a coupling agent.

Figure 5

Figure 5

Evolution of the normalized mechanical properties as a function of exposure time.

Figure 6

Figure 6

SEM micrographs detailing the fracture surface of aged composites, reinforced with 30 wt % of hemp fibres without (a,c,e) and with (b,d,f) a coupling agent.

Figure 7

Figure 7

SEM micrographs detailing the fracture surface of aged composites, reinforced with 30 wt % of basalt fibres without (a,c,e) and with (b,d,f) a coupling agent.

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References

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Pet CBD(cannabidiol) Market to See Booming Growth | Canna-Pet, Choom Holdings, Receptra …

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5 North America Pet CBD(cannabidiol) by Countries
6 Europe Pet CBD(cannabidiol) by Countries
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