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Domain architecture divergence leads to functional divergence in binding and catalytic domains of bacterial and fungal cellobiohydrolases

Cellobiohydrolases directly convert crystalline cellulose into cellobiose, and are of biotechnological interest to achieve efficient biomass utilization. As a result, much research in the field has focused on identifying cellobiohydrolases that are very fast. Cellobiohydrolase A from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi (CfCel6B) and cellobiohydrolase II from the fungus Trichoderma reesei (TrCel6A) have similar catalytic domains (CDs) and show similar hydrolytic activity. However, TrCel6A and CfCel6B…

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. 2020 Aug 18;jbc.RA120.014792.

doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.014792. Online ahead of print.

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Akihiko Nakamura et al. J Biol Chem. .

Abstract

Cellobiohydrolases directly convert crystalline cellulose into cellobiose, and are of biotechnological interest to achieve efficient biomass utilization. As a result, much research in the field has focused on identifying cellobiohydrolases that are very fast. Cellobiohydrolase A from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi (CfCel6B) and cellobiohydrolase II from the fungus Trichoderma reesei (TrCel6A) have similar catalytic domains (CDs) and show similar hydrolytic activity. However, TrCel6A and CfCel6B have different cellulose binding domains (CBDs) and linkers: TrCel6A has a glycosylated peptide linker while CfCel6B’s linker consists of three fibronectin type 3 domains. We previously found that TrCel6A’s linker plays an important role in increasing the binding rate constant to crystalline cellulose. However, it was not clear whether CfCel6B’s linker has similar function. Here we analyze kinetic parameters of CfCel6B using single-molecule fluorescence imaging to compare CfCel6B and TrCel6A. We find that CBD is important for initial binding of CfCel6B, but the contribution of the linker to the binding rate constant or to the dissociation rate constant is minor. The crystal structure of CfCel6B CD showed longer loops at the entrance and exit of the substrate-binding tunnel compared to TrCel6A CD, which results in higher processivity. Furthermore, CfCel6B CD showed not only fast surface diffusion but also slow processive movement, which is not observed in TrCel6A CD. Combined with the results of a phylogenetic tree analysis, we propose that bacterial cellobiohydrolases are designed to degrade crystalline cellulose using high-affinity CBD and high-processivity CD.

Keywords: Cellulomonas fimi; Trichoderma reesei; carbohydrate-binding protein; cellulase; cellulose; glycoside hydrolase; glycoside hydrolase family 6; microscopic imaging; molecular imaging; processivity; single-molecule biophysics.

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Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32816991/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20200822020034&v=2.11.5

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