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Material

Decomposition mechanism of AlMgB14 during the spark plasma sintering

Publication date: March–April 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Volume 11

Author(s): P.Yu. Nikitin, I.A. Zhukov, A.B. Vorozhtsov

Republished by Plato

Published

on

open access

Abstract

In this work, AlMgB14-based materials were obtained from an (Al–Mg)–B powder mixture by spark plasma sintering. The microstructure, phase composition, and properties of the obtained materials were investigated. The sample, which was sintered at a temperature of 1400 °C, has the highest average hardness of 29.5 GPa with a maximum measured hardness value of 34.55 GPa. The density of the obtained sample is 2.621 g/cm3 (theoretical density of pure AlMgB14 is 2.59 g/cm3). A mechanism for the decomposition of AlMgB14 at local overheating of the (Al–Mg)–B powder mixture during spark plasma sintering was proposed. In the first stage, AlMgB14 decomposes into AlB12, an intermetallic compound Al12Mg17 and Mg. In the second stage, the decomposition products react with oxygen to form spinel MgAl2O4 and aluminum borate Al4B2O9. Finally, the use of isothermal holding for 5 min at a temperature of 1470 °C leads to an increase in the MgAl2O4 spinel content, further reaction of Al2O3 and boron oxide B2O3 and, as a consequence, the formation of borate Al18B4O33.

Keywords

Aluminum magnesium boride

AlMgB14

Spark plasma sintering

Decomposition mechanism

Hardness

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785421000442?dgcid=rss_sd_all

Material

Simulation of deformation and fracture initiation during equal channel angular pressing of AZ31 magnesium alloy with covered tube casing

Publication date: Available online 31 March 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Author(s): A.R. Eivani, S.M. Mirghasemi, S.H. Seyedein, J. Zhou, H.R. Jafarian

Republished by Plato

Published

on


Elsevier

Available online 31 March 2021

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

open access

Abstract

The present research was aimed at lowering the deformation temperature by applying cover tube casing (CTC) to AZ31 magnesium alloy samples subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) without triggering surface defects and/or fracture. The Cockcroft-Latham (C & L) fracture model was incorporated into finite element simulation and the critical values for a fracture to occur were determined. The fracture was predicted for the samples deformed at 150, 175, and 200 °C without CTC and with CTC having thicknesses of 1 and 4 mm. The predictions of the model were verified with experimental data. It was found that the workability of AZ31 increased with increasing CTC thickness, as a result of a reduction in the maximum principal stress at the top surface, a uniform distribution of strains, and an increase in the critical damage. In practice, the use of CTC led to the possibility of a reduction in deformation temperature by 25 °C. A sound product with a homogeneous grain structure and a mean grain size of 11 μm was achieved at 175 °C. Thus, the ECAP working window for the alloy was enlarged with accompanying benefits in energy consumption, tooling life, and manufacturing costs.

Keywords

Finite element simulation

Equal channel angular pressing

Fracture

Magnesium

Workability

© 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785421003239?dgcid=rss_sd_all

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Material

Preparation, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide thin film doped with low chirality metallic SWCNTs

Publication date: Available online 31 March 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Author(s): Asmaa M. Abozied, Ayman M. Mostafa, A. Abouelsayed, A.F. Hassan, A.A. Ramadan, Emad A. Al-Ashkar, Badawi Anis

Republished by Plato

Published

on


Elsevier

Available online 31 March 2021

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

open access

Abstract

We present non-linear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO) doped with low chirality metallic single walled carbon nanotubes (m-SWCNTs) thin films. The weight percentage of the m-SWCNTs was 5, 10, and 20 wt%. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM), Raman, and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to characterize the prepared samples. We have investigated their nonlinear optical properties using open and closed Z-scan technique at Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm laser pulses (7 ns, 10 Hz). The nonlinear absorption coefficient β, nonlinear refractive index n2, and third order nonlinear susceptibility χ3 were calculated. The results show that all samples exhibit reverse saturable absorption (RSA) because of increasing metallicity and/or partial reduction of GO during laser illumination. The nonlinearity response of the GO/m-SWCNT films increase as the m-SWCNTs percentage increases. The high non-linear optical parameters of the GO/m-SWCNTs films make them as superior candidates for near-infrared (NIR) laser protection applications.

Keywords

Graphene Oxide

low chirality metallic-SWCNTs

NLO

thin film

Z-scan

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785421003161?dgcid=rss_sd_all

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Material

Selective room-temperature leaching of copper from mechanically activated copper smelter slag

Publication date: Available online 1 April 2021

Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Author(s): Lyazzat Mussapyrova, Rashid Nadirov, Peter Baláž, Michal Rajňák, Radovan Bureš, Matej Baláž

Republished by Plato

Published

on


Elsevier

Available online 1 April 2021

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

open access

Abstract

Herein, the room-temperature sulfuric acid leaching of copper smelter slag powder in the presence of potassium dichromate was investigated, resulting in the selective extraction of copper with its separation from zinc and iron. To enhance the extraction of copper, mechanical activation in the planetary ball mill and attritor was used. The Taguchi method was applied to determine the optimal conditions for both mechanical activation and leaching. For mechanical activation in the attritor, a rotation speed of 1200 rpm, ball-to-powder ratio of 40 and milling time of 75 min were ideal. Under these conditions, the specific surface area (SBET) could be increased from 1.7 m2/g, for the starting slag, to 59.4 m2/g. According to ANOVA, the most important factor is the rotation speed. For comparison, the slag was subjected also to planetary ball milling using the same conditions and a specific surface area of 116 m2/g was obtained. Leaching conditions that maximize copper recovery and, independently, copper selectivity, were also found. The maximum copper recovery was 87.3%, while the maximum copper selectivity was 97.9%. The most influential parameters in leaching were the concentration of K2Cr2O7 and the liquid-to-solid ratio. The copper selectivity is attributed to better solubility of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) in comparison with zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) and fayalite (FeSiO4) containing the other metals. This study provides a statistical approach for planning the experiments of pretreatment and leaching to efficiently obtain valuable metals from secondary raw resources in an environmentally interesting fashion by using low concentrations of leaching agents and mechanical pretreatment.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

copper smelter slag

copper recovery

mechanical activation

selective leaching

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785421003173?dgcid=rss_sd_all

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