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Cissus Populnea Fiber – Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Mechanical Properties and Interfacial Adhesion

Volume 17, Issue 9, September 2020, Page 1281-1294

Republished by Plato



Mechanical (flexural, hardness, and impact) properties and interfacial adhesion of acetic anhydride (AC) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treated Cissus populnea fiber-unsaturated polyester (UPR) composites was investigated because of poor durability of the natural fiber-UPR composite applications. UPR composites were prepared with untreated and optimally treated fiber using hand-lay-up technique. Optimization of mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion between the fiber and UPR were determined using response surface methodology and fiber pull-out method, respectively. AC and EDTA treated fibers improved the flexural and hardness properties and interfacial adhesion at reduced impact strength. This is corroborated with morphology of the composites.



Additional information

Author information

Taofik Oladimeji Azeez

Dr. Taofik Oladimeji Azeez is a senior lecturer of the Department of Biomedical Technology, Federal University of  Technology, Owerri in Nigeria. He obtained academic qualifications in Chemical Engineering (Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech.), Master of Engineering (M. Eng.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.)). He is Registered Engineer (COREN) and member of Nigerian Society of Engineers.

List of abbreviations

UPRUnsaturated polyester resin;

AC acetic anhydride;

EDTA ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid;

ANOVA analysis of variance;

Adj.R2 adjusted correlation coefficient or coefficient of determination;

MEKP methyl ethylketone peroxide;

RSM response surface methodology;

SEM scanning electron microscopy;

UCPUPR untreated Cissus populnea fiber-UPR composites



CBD and Menopause

Menopause is a natural aging process. Navigating through this phase with lifestyle improvements and…

The post CBD and Menopause appeared first on Nordic Oil Blog.

Republished by Plato



Menopause is a natural aging process. Navigating through this phase with lifestyle improvements and a positive approach could make a lot of difference. Has CBD got a role to play? Let us discuss further. 

The tall list of symptoms associated with menopause makes us worried, anxious, and pessimistic. So I am eager to share some insights on taking a positive approach to this stereotypical thinking around menopause.

Are hot flashes, weight gain, lowered sex drive, sleep troubles, mood swings, annoying you?!  

Come on! Pat yourself, thank your body for having taken you this far, smile, and get set for yet another transformation.

“Menopause is a path that is guiding you towards wisdom, higher spirituality, and finding your Ikigai.”

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Therefore, consider this post as a discussion guide to improve your understanding of menopause and make informed decisions about using CBD to handle the discomforts during this phase of life. 

  • Is CBD beneficial for menopause?
  • Does CBD help balance hormones?
  • Which CBD is good?
  • Menopause Diet Ideas
  • What does science say about CBD and women’s health? 
  • Menopause and Andropause: Some Insights

Is CBD beneficial for menopause?

Firstly, let us understand that menopause is a natural transformation process for your mind, body, and soul. So, how about artistically approaching this phase of life with the help of scientific methods? Could it help discover new perspectives while combating the annoying menopausal symptoms with ease?

There is a wide range of symptoms that menopause displays. Physical symptoms include vasomotor symptoms (commonly known as hot flashes), night sweats, sleep disturbances, weight gain due to decreased metabolism, urinary incontinence, dizziness, headaches, loss of bone density, joint pain, breast tenderness, hair growth in unwanted parts, and more.

Additionally, mental troubles include mood changes, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and so on. Also, vaginal dryness and declining estrogen levels lower your sex drive. 

Now, looking at the suitability of CBD products to these menopause symptoms, anecdotal and self-reported surveys of women using CBD oil for managing insomnia, hormonal imbalances, and mental stress are worth considering.

For example, medical experts opine that cannabinoids could help manage the triggers of hot flashes. Aging women age are susceptible to high stress and uncertainty, which leaves them anxious. Therefore, practitioners report that women who have adopted CBD products have responded well.

Similarly, reference from another anecdotal information records that women find comfort from insomnia and hot flashes when using CBD products. And consider them as alternatives to opioids and NSAID class painkillers.Moreover, clinical interventions such as hormonal therapy are effective treatments for menopause symptoms, inhibiting bone loss, reducing fracture incidence in postmenopausal women, and restraining long-term estrogen deficiency.  But hormone replacement therapy does cause side effects depending on your age, medical history, and condition.

Does CBD help balance hormones?

In general hormonal imbalances could affect both men and women, mostly during their middle ages. And the resulting conditions can be overwhelming. The endocrine system consists of glands responsible for producing hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, mood, and sexual health. Hence fluctuations in these hormones give rise to health conditions including diabetes, thyroid disorders, obesity, osteoporosis, PCOS, and more. 

When it comes to women, puberty, pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause are significant biological events that trigger hormonal fluctuations.

  • A 2018 study reports the interconnection between the endocannabinoid system and the functions of the endocrine system. Cannabis-derived compounds exert their effects by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors. 
  • Another study points that CBD interferes with cortisol secretion,
  • Estrogen and the endocannabinoid system have direct and indirect interactions. The endocannabinoid system impacts the release of estrogen through central down-regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

Recommended reading: How does CBD interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

It is important to note that there is no reference to clinical trials on managing menopause with cannabis products. Despite the popular applicability of CBD products in multitude of domains, this topic has received limited research attention.

Which CBD product is good for menopause?

CBD products are available in several forms that give you the convenience of personalizing it according to your needs. That includes CBD oils, CBD capsules, CBD vape liquids, CBD supplements, CBD topicals, and more.

  • In which route can I take my CBD? 
  • What CBD dosage could provide me relief?

These are the two questions that you may find solutions to from your personal experience.For example, women in the perimenopause phase (six months to one year) is the transitional phase where considerable hormone fluctuations occur. So, this period could display most of the symptoms in a much-pronounced manner.

Here are a few options for you to consider while choosing your CBD:

  • Full-spectrum CBD oils contain all the cannabinoids and terpenes that could give you the entourage effect. You could sublingually take a few drops as recommended. Or you could add them to your food and take them twice or thrice in a day. It could take 15-20 minutes to get absorbed, and the effect could last between 4-6 hours. 
  • If you are a new user to CBD, start low. Micro dosing may be an effective method to keep you active throughout the day.
  • CBD liposomal capsules are also a good choice. The onset time could be a little longer, say, roughly an hour ( 60 minutes), but its effect can last for 6-10 hours.
  • For experienced users, CBD concentrates could provide a quicker onset time to get absorbed by the bloodstream. 
  • Vaporizing may not be suggested for women who are undergoing hormone replacement therapies or other complications.
  • Studies have shown that phytocannabinoids and terpenes interaction produces a synergistic effect. Terpenes such as Myrcene, Linalool, Caryophyllene help manage pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, and bacterial infections.

Ultimately, you can choose how you prefer to take your CBD based on the symptoms that need the most attention. Consult with your medical expert to give you a suggestion about the appropriate dosage that suits you, considering your intake of other medications.

Menopause Diet – Some Ideas

Planning a good diet could save you from a lot of troubles. Your perfect menopause diet should provide you with:

  • adequate nutrition,
  • check fluctuating sugar levels that can help maintain weight
  • improve hormonal balance and reduce inflammation.

Therefore to attain the above diet goals:

  • Include fiber-rich food such as oats, brown rice, millets, and whole grains.
  • Liberally take fruits such as papaya, apples, kiwi, guava, and vegetables such as carrots, beetroots, bell peppers, broccoli.  
  • Studies suggest that intake of lignans shows a 15% decreased risk in post-menopausal women.  You can find dietary Lignans in cereals and oilseeds. 
  • Increase lignans intake from sources such as wheat, oat, barley, and rye cereals. Also include oilseeds such as flax seeds, sesame seeds, and hemp seeds. These are also rich in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids that help maintain hormonal balance.  
  • Phytoestrogen-rich foods help tackle weakened bones due to estrogen deficiency. They include Tofu and Fish such as Tuna, Salmon, and Mackerel. Similarly, soy milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese, green leafy vegetables, spinach, kale, may help improve vaginal dryness and bone loss.
  • Vitamin B6, Calcium, Protein, B complex in the form of supplements could be helpful.

Now, you have a chance to generously treat yourself with a portion of nutritious food every day. Go ahead! Be creative and infuse CBD oil in your smoothies, salads, pasta, and sandwiches, and keep yourself feeling good.

Not to forget, avoid caffeine, tea, alcohol, tobacco, refined food, sugary confectionery, and spicy food as these could make you acidic. Acidity could eventually affect your bone health and aggravate your condition.

What does science say?

The three phases include Perimenopause, Menopause, and Post-menopause. This prolonged period affects the quality of life of women. There are little to no studies that focus on the applicability of CBD to handle the troublesome symptoms that accompany this phase.

Available observational and clinical studies provide data only around menopause, hormone replacement therapy, and breast cancer. But, women’s health issues such as puberty, pregnancy, and menopause need more attention.

Therefore, there is a need for more conclusive reports to substantiate the use of CBD and if CBD could help in alleviating specific health conditions.

Menopause and Andropause: Some Insights

The mid-life crisis affects both men and women.  

While women experience a decline in estrogen levels, andropause affects 50 years and older men who experience a drop in testosterone levels. 

But andropause is a debatable topic. Studies say that not all men undergo this phase, even though the symptoms are similar to what women face. Hot flashes, reduced sex drive, depression, mood changes, and anxiety could affect men in their mid-life in their early 40’s.

Studies say that men process pain and aging differently. That is why maybe they avoid talking about it. CBD could help them too in handling uncomfortable symptoms. So, do support your better half, brother, or friend if they need your support in handling andropause.

 Wrap up

  • The average menopause age is 51.2years, but perimenopause symptoms begin 3-5 years earlier. Moreover, studies say that race, ethnicity, lifestyle, and demographic factors affect the onset age.
  • Scientific studies are yet to certify cannabis products for handling menopause symptoms. But increasing self-reported surveys from women show interest in CBD to manage their mid-life crisis.
  • Micro-dosing of CBD could be an effective method to keep the body comfortable throughout the day.
  • Kegel exercises, specific yoga asanas such as Adho Mukha Svanasana, Uttana Shishosana, could provide relief from sleep disturbances, reduce anxiety and help improve sleep. Similarly, research emphasizes complementary health practices such as hypnosis, mindfulness meditation, tai chi combined with botanicals and natural supplements for women who seek alternative remedies.
  • Ultimately, brush aside all the inconveniences and think of the bright side. Rediscover the new you! How about trying our CBD cosmetics range that not only pampers your senses but also integrates all the benefits of CBD.

Share this post with a friend of yours and improve your positive karmic footprint. Stay social and subscribe to our newsletters.

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Anyone a fan of thoughtcloud?

Republished by Plato



I was using it previously as my ex gave me a bottle and now I want to give cbd to my father who was just diagnosed with cancer.

However I cannot find anything online on this company. Seems they are from Colorado and have a variety of cannabinoids including CBG which is also of interest to me however outside of their site and a few instagram affiliates there is not much info. You can scan the qr code but it seems to lead to one batch test.

Does anyone have more info on them? Im wondering if I should find a different brand to give my father

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Urban air mobility is coming




Urban air mobility is coming

David Latimer, managing director of Sheffield-based magnetic gear technology specialists, Magnomatics, reveals how lightweight, reliable motors are a key enabling technology in the urban air mobility (UAM) arena.

The Vertical Flight Society (VFS) has identified 347 electric aircraft are being designed. As in the early days of electric cars, there are three categories of player. Firstly, there is the established industry (e.g. Boeing, Airbus, Bell, Sikorsky and Rolls-Royce) who are dipping their toes into the market with prototypes and demonstrators. Many are also aligning themselves with the second category, the well-funded start-up.

There are several very well-funded start-ups that could become the Tesla of the air mobility world. Elon Musk has hinted about an electric aircraft, but also says batteries are still too heavy. A great example of a well-funded start-up is Joby Aviation, who has raised USD$820 million from credible investors that include Toyota. Joby Aviation are developing a multi-tilt rotor four-seater with a range of up to 240km. They have recently joined forces with Uber and expect to be operational by 2024.

Another is Ehang, the Chinese air taxi company has a market value of USD$1.4 billion. In November 2020, in Seoul, Korea, they demonstrated their two-man aircraft with 3.6km journey using an 80kg bag of rice in place of a person. Perhaps one of the most promising start-ups in Europe though is Lilium who have raised USD$375m. Their full-size, tilt wing, five-seater prototype first flew on the 4th March 2019. Other credible players include Volocopter (Germany), Dufour (Switzerland), Kitty Hawk (USA and linked with Boeing), Vertical Aerospace (UK) and Archer (USA). Finally, there are a large number of more hopeful aspirants who may or may not be credible.

For most of these start-ups the business model is similar. The idea is to use these eVTOL (electric vertical take-off and landing) aircraft for short to medium journeys between places like Heathrow and central London. Significantly cutting down journey times for a modest price premium. Joby Aviation use the example of flying from Los Angeles Airport to Newport Beach, cutting the journey time from 1 ¼ hours to just 15 minutes. The target consumers for most business models are those who consider their time is of great value.

Most of the early adopters are using smaller drones for the delivery of medical supplies, foods and more general delivery. However, this really establishes the principle of operating autonomous light-weight drones over cities, paving the way for much larger human carrying drones.

Joby Aviation, who have completed over 1,000 test flights and agreed certification standards with the FAA in 2020, seems confident that it will be in commercial service by 2024. Lilium has also recently announced a partnership with Dusseldorf and Cologne/Bonn Airport to develop an air mobility zone. The company has also announced plans to set up an air mobility hub in Florida.

We can see that urban air mobility is far from a science fiction dream. So just how big could this market become? Morgan Stanley optimistically forecast 49,429 such aircraft by 2025, rising to more than 170,000 by 2040. Whilst the bulk of these will be small drones for package delivery, a significant proportion will transport people. This is the sector Magnomatics is targeting.

Lightweight reliable motors are a key enabling technology for these aircraft. Magnomatics technology has already been identified by NASA as ideal for air mobility. It has all the benefits of a mechanically geared motor without the reliability and maintenance issues of a mechanical gearbox. With torque density and reliability being viewed as a key metrics for this market, Magnomatics has already received enquiries from a number of serious players.

Magnomatics has reviewed competing motors being promoted for this sector – all use traditional metal structures. The leading example appears to be the Rolls-Royce P200 with a torque density of 30Nm/kg. However, like others this machine is liquid-cooled which introduces further mass, complexity and sources of failure. Magnomatics has made a further initial concept design that achieves 32.9Nm/kg, is also an air-cooled variant and results in a lighter overall system. This has been achieved by engaging in concurrent electromagnetic, thermal, materials and digital engineering. There is also a strong emphasis on the integrated use of composites.


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