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Chronic exposure to cannabidiol induces reproductive toxicity in male Swiss mice

Children and adults with frequent and severe episodes of epilepsy that do not respond to standard treatments (such as carbamazepine, phenytoin and valproate) have long been prescribed cannabidiol (CBD) as an anticonvulsant drug. However, the safety of its chronic use in relation to reproduction has not been fully examined. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic CBD exposure on the male reproductive system. CBD was orally administered to 21-day-old male Swiss mice at doses of 15 and 30…

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Children and adults with frequent and severe episodes of epilepsy that do not respond to standard treatments (such as carbamazepine, phenytoin and valproate) have long been prescribed cannabidiol (CBD) as an anticonvulsant drug. However, the safety of its chronic use in relation to reproduction has not been fully examined. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic CBD exposure on the male reproductive system. CBD was orally administered to 21-day-old male Swiss mice at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 daily (CBD 15 and 30 groups, respectively), with a control group receiving sunflower oil, for 34 consecutive days. After a 35 day recovery period, the following parameters were evaluated: weight of reproductive organs, testosterone concentration, spermatogenesis, histomorphometry, daily sperm production and its morphology. The CBD 30 group had a 76% decrease in total circulating testosterone, but it remained within the physiological normal range (240-1100 ng dl-1 ). CBD treatment induced a significant increase in the frequency of stages I-IV and V-VI of spermatogenesis, and a decrease in the frequency of stages VII-VIII and XII. A significant decrease in the number of Sertoli cells was observed only in the CBD 30 group. In both CBD groups the number of spermatozoa in the epididymis tail was reduced by 38%, sperm had head abnormalities, and cytoplasmic droplets were observed in the medial region of flagellum. These results indicated that chronic CBD exposure was associated with changes in the male reproductive system, suggesting its reproductive toxicity.

Keywords: cannabinoids; endocannabinoids; spermatogenesis; spermatozoa; testosterone.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29766538/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1TUbR4JfRTv1rbahLd1HaiF0w5ryO5ocWB3_xk3Prq78L0AEhI&fc=20200804222312&ff=20200816131303&v=2.11.5

Heartland

The Role of Cannabinoids as Anticancer Agents in Pediatric Oncology

Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals that bind to receptors in the human body and, in turn, modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They can be endogenously produced, synthetic, or derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L. Research over the past several decades has shown that the ECS is a cellular communication network essential to maintain multiple biological functions and the homeostasis of the body. Indeed, cannabinoids have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological effects,…

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Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals that bind to receptors in the human body and, in turn, modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They can be endogenously produced, synthetic, or derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L. Research over the past several decades has shown that the ECS is a cellular communication network essential to maintain multiple biological functions and the homeostasis of the body. Indeed, cannabinoids have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological effects, including memory, pain, reproduction, bone remodeling or immunity, to name a few. Unsurprisingly, given these broad physiological effects, alterations of the ECS have been found in different diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the medical use of cannabis has been approved in different countries for a variety of human conditions. However, the use of these compounds, specifically as anticancer agents, remains controversial. Studies have shown that cannabinoids do have anticancer activity in different tumor types such as breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma and adult brain cancer. Specifically, phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of adult cancer cells, as well as modulate angiogenesis and metastasis. Despite increasing evidence that cannabinoids elicit antitumor effects in adult cancers, there is minimal data available on their effects in children or in pediatric cancers despite public and clinical demand for information. Here we describe a comprehensive and critical review of what is known about the effects of cannabinoids on pediatric cancers, highlight current gaps in knowledge and identify the critical issues that need addressing before considering these promising but controversial drugs for use in pediatric oncology.

Keywords: CBD; THC; cannabidiol; cannabinoid; childhood cancer; medical cannabis; pediatric oncology; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33466435/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210120135252&v=2.14.2

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Heartland

Cannabis sativa L. as a Natural Drug Meeting the Criteria of a Multitarget Approach to Treatment

Cannabis sativa L. turned out to be a valuable source of chemical compounds of various structures, showing pharmacological activity. The most important groups of compounds include phytocannabinoids and terpenes. The pharmacological activity of Cannabis (in epilepsy, sclerosis multiplex (SM), vomiting and nausea, pain, appetite loss, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, glaucoma, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), which has been…

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Cannabis sativa L. turned out to be a valuable source of chemical compounds of various structures, showing pharmacological activity. The most important groups of compounds include phytocannabinoids and terpenes. The pharmacological activity of Cannabis (in epilepsy, sclerosis multiplex (SM), vomiting and nausea, pain, appetite loss, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, glaucoma, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), which has been proven so far, results from the affinity of these compounds predominantly for the receptors of the endocannabinoid system (the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), type two (CB2), and the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)) but, also, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), glycine receptors, serotonin receptors (5-HT), transient receptor potential channels (TRP), and GPR, opioid receptors. The synergism of action of phytochemicals present in Cannabis sp. raw material is also expressed in their increased bioavailability and penetration through the blood-brain barrier. This review provides an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacology of compounds present in Cannabis extracts in the context of the current knowledge about their synergistic actions and the implications of clinical use in the treatment of selected diseases.

Keywords: Cannabis; multitarget; phytocannabinoids (THC and CBD); receptors; terpenes.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33466734/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210120135252&v=2.14.2

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Heartland

Pervasive cropland in protected areas highlight trade-offs between conservation and food security

Global cropland expansion over the last century caused widespread habitat loss and degradation. Establishment of protected areas aims to counteract the loss of habitats and to slow species extinctions. However, many protected areas also include high levels of habitat disturbance and conversion for uses such as cropland. Understanding where and why this occurs may realign conservation priorities and inform protected area policy in light of competing priorities such as food security. Here, we use…

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. 2021 Jan 26;118(4):e2010121118.

doi: 10.1073/pnas.2010121118.

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Varsha Vijay et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. .

Abstract

Global cropland expansion over the last century caused widespread habitat loss and degradation. Establishment of protected areas aims to counteract the loss of habitats and to slow species extinctions. However, many protected areas also include high levels of habitat disturbance and conversion for uses such as cropland. Understanding where and why this occurs may realign conservation priorities and inform protected area policy in light of competing priorities such as food security. Here, we use our global synthesis cropland dataset to quantify cropland in protected areas globally and assess their relationship to conservation aims and socio-environmental context. We estimate that cropland occupies 1.4 million km2 or 6% of global protected area. Cropland occurs across all protected area management types, with 22% occurring in strictly protected areas. Cropland inside protected areas is more prevalent in countries with higher population density, lower income inequality, and with higher agricultural suitability of protected lands. While this phenomenon is dominant in midnorthern latitudes, areas of cropland in protected areas of the tropics and subtropics may present greater trade-offs due to higher levels of both biodiversity and food insecurity. Although area-based targets are prominent in biodiversity goal-setting, our results show that they can mask persistent anthropogenic land uses detrimental to native ecosystem conservation. To ensure the long-term efficacy of protected areas, post-2020 goal setting must link aims for biodiversity and human health and improve monitoring of conservation outcomes in cropland-impacted protected areas.

Keywords: CBD; area-based targets; conservation; food security; protected areas.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interest.

References

    1. Klein Goldewijk K., Beusen A., Doelman J., Stehfest E.. New anthropogenic land use estimates for the holocene: HYDE 3.2. Earth Syst. Sci. Data. 2017;9:927–953.
    1. Barrett C. B.. Measuring food insecurity. Science. 2010;327:825–828.
    1. Fogel R. W.. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the Third World. 2004.
    1. Crist E., Mora C., Engelman R.. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection. Science. 2017;356:260–264.
    1. Pimm S. L., Vijay V.. Population, Agriculture, and Biodiversity: Problems and Prospects. 2020;365.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33468666/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210120135252&v=2.14.2

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