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Chromium and fluoride sorption/desorption on un-amended and waste-amended forest and vineyard soils and pyritic material

Using batch-type experiments, chromium (Cr(VI)) and fluoride (F^(-)) sorption/desorption were studied in forest and vineyard soil samples, pyritic material, pine bark, oak ash, hemp waste and mussel shell, as well as on samples of forest and vineyard soil, and of pyritic material, individually treated with 48 t ha^(-1) of pine bark, oak ash, and mussel shell. Pine bark showed the highest Cr(VI) sorption (always > 97% of the concentration added) and low desorption (<1.5%). Pyritic material sorbed...

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Using batch-type experiments, chromium (Cr(VI)) and fluoride (F) sorption/desorption were studied in forest and vineyard soil samples, pyritic material, pine bark, oak ash, hemp waste and mussel shell, as well as on samples of forest and vineyard soil, and of pyritic material, individually treated with 48 t ha-1 of pine bark, oak ash, and mussel shell. Pine bark showed the highest Cr(VI) sorption (always > 97% of the concentration added) and low desorption (<1.5%). Pyritic material sorbed between 55 and 98%, and desorbed between 0.6 and 9%. Forest and vineyard soils, oak ash, mussel shell and hemp waste showed Cr(VI) sorption always < 32%, and desorption between 22 and 100%. Pine bark also showed the highest F retention (sorption between 62 and 73%, desorption between 10 and 15%), followed by oak ash (sorption 60-69%, desorption 11-14%), forest soil (sorption 60-73%, desorption 19-36%), and pyritic material (sorption 60-67%, desorption 13-15%), whereas in vineyard sorption was 49-64%, and desorption 24-27%, and in hemp waste sorption was 26-36%, and desorption 41-59%. Sorption data showed better fitting to the Freundlich than to the Langmuir model, especially in the case of Cr(VI), indicating that multilayer sorption dominated. The addition of by-products to the forest and vineyard soils, and to the pyritic material, caused an overall increase in F sorption, and decreased desorption. Furthermore, the pine bark amendment resulted in increases in Cr(VI) retention by both soils and the pyritic material. These results could be useful to favor the recycling of the by-products studied, aiding in the management of soils and degraded areas affected by Cr(VI) and F pollution, and in the removal of both anions from polluted waters.

Keywords: By-products; Cr(VI) pollution; F(−) pollution; Release; Retention.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29800861/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1854v2hhZntXmjLwJ2c8ICqk5dHszkjKaegUwgxvTg53irEIHf&fc=20200804212743&ff=20200811031832&v=2.11.5

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Can CBD oil cause heartburn?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/k1t13y/can_cbd_oil_cause_heartburn/

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Not All Hemp Products Are Created Equal

What is the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?

Both Hemp and Marijuana are in the cannabis family. Human intervention has produced variation within the species in terms of THC and CBD levels. Simply put, hemp is designated by a man-made definition of THC levels at or below 0.3%. Marijuana is always harvested from female plants and typically has high THC levels with little to no CBD, although some strains can contain verifying levels of CBD/THC ratios. Hemp has over 10,000 known uses, which can be made from both the female or male plant depending on the desired product. Mana Artisan Botanics uses only female hemp plants in our products, with lab testing guaranteeing below 0.3% THC levels.

Hemp extract is the phytocannabinoid concentrate, created through some form of extraction process, most commonly either with supercritical carbon dioxide or ethanol. The extract’s potency will depend on the levels of cannabinoids in the plant, so each batch of extract will have different levels of cannabinoids.

Why should you care where your hemp is sourced from?

The demand for hemp extracts is rapidly increasing in the U.S. However, there is still limited supply of U.S.-grown hemp, resulting in high prices that cannot compete against imported hemp extract from places like China or Eastern Europe. Consumers seeking quality products may find a lack of transparency when it comes to the origin of the hemp extract in their products. And unfortunately, there is limited data behind the volume and quality control behind these imported hemp extracts.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, we take great care to source high-quality hemp that is grown in the U.S., with the specific intention to facilitate health and wellness.

Do hemp cultivation methods matter?

In the cannabis industry much of what is grown, unless it is organic, is sprayed with varying levels of pesticides and fungicides. Most consumers don’t realize this is a common practice. Given the increasing demand for hemp and cannabis, many conventional farmers are transitioning their fields to these high value crops. Yet, hemp’s cultivation environment is critical as it can act as a bio-remediation crop, absorbing contaminants from the soil while it grows. If the hemp was grown in poor or misused soil, that plant might contain toxins you won’t want to ingest.

This is why at Mana Artisan Botanics, we source our CBD-rich hemp extract only from farms that have never had any toxic agriculture on the land or use any harmful pesticides or fungicides. All our products are purity and potency tested at multiple lab facilities such as Steep Hill Labs Hawaii and Hawaii Pharm Labs for cannabinoid levels as well as pesticide residue, heavy metals and other contaminants. State of the art testing methods are used and THC levels are guaranteed to be under the federal limit of 0.3%. If you want to review the lab results, please contact us!

Do different hemp strains deliver varying results?

Many of the hemp products on the market derive their CBDs as a by-product from other types of hemp varieties such as fiber or seed for hemp food products. The levels of CBD-rich hemp extract in these products are lower and lack the diverse spectrum of cannabinoids one would ideally want for an “entourage effect” that delivers the possible synergies made available by whole plant therapies.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, the hemp we source is grown with great care to facilitate high levels of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids.

What is the entourage effect?

The “entourage effect” or “plant synergy” is the idea that cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids in cannabis interact synergistically to magnify the therapeutic benefits of the plant’s individual components—so that the medicinal impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts.

Are whole plant extracts superior to single-compound alternatives?

Do you know the difference between isolates and whole plant extracts? “Whole plant extract” has a wide range of cannabinoids. Most scientists agree that there is between 80-120 cannabinoids plus additional terpenes, in addition to the better know CBD and THC compounds. With a “whole plant” extract you are getting access to the much wider spectrum of cannabinoids in your hemp infusion for that entourage effect.Isolates are not known to be effective as a whole plant extracts for that very reason. Additionally, isolates can be over processed, sometimes with added chemicals for purification.

Mana Artisan Botanics uses “whole plant extracts” only, with full range of cannabinoids making our infusions superior to single-compound alternatives.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Turmeric in our hemp infusions?

Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the most intensely researched natural products available today. With over 6,000 peer-reviewed studies, including clinical and scientific research, turmeric is shown to have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. We add turmeric in our hemp infusions to further augment the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Passionflower in our Hawaiian Sleep Hemp Tincture?

Passionflower extract has been shown in studies to be helpful for relieving general anxiety and improving sleep quality. We add passionflower in our sleep hemp tincture to further augment the anti-anxiety effects of cannabinoids.

Republished by Plato

Published

on

What is the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?

Both Hemp and Marijuana are in the cannabis family. Human intervention has produced variation within the species in terms of THC and CBD levels. Simply put, hemp is designated by a man-made definition of THC levels at or below 0.3%. Marijuana is always harvested from female plants and typically has high THC levels with little to no CBD, although some strains can contain verifying levels of CBD/THC ratios. Hemp has over 10,000 known uses, which can be made from both the female or male plant depending on the desired product. Mana Artisan Botanics uses only female hemp plants in our products, with lab testing guaranteeing below 0.3% THC levels.

Hemp extract is the phytocannabinoid concentrate, created through some form of extraction process, most commonly either with supercritical carbon dioxide or ethanol. The extract’s potency will depend on the levels of cannabinoids in the plant, so each batch of extract will have different levels of cannabinoids.

Why should you care where your hemp is sourced from?

The demand for hemp extracts is rapidly increasing in the U.S. However, there is still limited supply of U.S.-grown hemp, resulting in high prices that cannot compete against imported hemp extract from places like China or Eastern Europe. Consumers seeking quality products may find a lack of transparency when it comes to the origin of the hemp extract in their products. And unfortunately, there is limited data behind the volume and quality control behind these imported hemp extracts.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, we take great care to source high-quality hemp that is grown in the U.S., with the specific intention to facilitate health and wellness.

Do hemp cultivation methods matter?

In the cannabis industry much of what is grown, unless it is organic, is sprayed with varying levels of pesticides and fungicides. Most consumers don’t realize this is a common practice. Given the increasing demand for hemp and cannabis, many conventional farmers are transitioning their fields to these high value crops. Yet, hemp’s cultivation environment is critical as it can act as a bio-remediation crop, absorbing contaminants from the soil while it grows. If the hemp was grown in poor or misused soil, that plant might contain toxins you won’t want to ingest.

This is why at Mana Artisan Botanics, we source our CBD-rich hemp extract only from farms that have never had any toxic agriculture on the land or use any harmful pesticides or fungicides. All our products are purity and potency tested at multiple lab facilities such as Steep Hill Labs Hawaii and Hawaii Pharm Labs for cannabinoid levels as well as pesticide residue, heavy metals and other contaminants. State of the art testing methods are used and THC levels are guaranteed to be under the federal limit of 0.3%. If you want to review the lab results, please contact us!

Do different hemp strains deliver varying results?

Many of the hemp products on the market derive their CBDs as a by-product from other types of hemp varieties such as fiber or seed for hemp food products. The levels of CBD-rich hemp extract in these products are lower and lack the diverse spectrum of cannabinoids one would ideally want for an “entourage effect” that delivers the possible synergies made available by whole plant therapies.

At Mana Artisan Botanics, the hemp we source is grown with great care to facilitate high levels of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids.

What is the entourage effect?

The “entourage effect” or “plant synergy” is the idea that cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids in cannabis interact synergistically to magnify the therapeutic benefits of the plant’s individual components—so that the medicinal impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts.

Are whole plant extracts superior to single-compound alternatives?

Do you know the difference between isolates and whole plant extracts? “Whole plant extract” has a wide range of cannabinoids. Most scientists agree that there is between 80-120 cannabinoids plus additional terpenes, in addition to the better know CBD and THC compounds. With a “whole plant” extract you are getting access to the much wider spectrum of cannabinoids in your hemp infusion for that entourage effect.Isolates are not known to be effective as a whole plant extracts for that very reason. Additionally, isolates can be over processed, sometimes with added chemicals for purification.

Mana Artisan Botanics uses “whole plant extracts” only, with full range of cannabinoids making our infusions superior to single-compound alternatives.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Turmeric in our hemp infusions?

Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the most intensely researched natural products available today. With over 6,000 peer-reviewed studies, including clinical and scientific research, turmeric is shown to have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. We add turmeric in our hemp infusions to further augment the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids.

Why does Mana Artisan Botanics include Passionflower in our Hawaiian Sleep Hemp Tincture?

Passionflower extract has been shown in studies to be helpful for relieving general anxiety and improving sleep quality. We add passionflower in our sleep hemp tincture to further augment the anti-anxiety effects of cannabinoids.

Source: https://www.finallycbd.shop/not-all-hemp-products-are-created-equal

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