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Chemical Treatment of Waste Abaca for Natural Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Composite

The use of natural fibers in reinforced composites to produce eco-friendly materials is gaining more attention due to their attractive features such as low cost, low density and good mechanical properties, among others. This work thus investigates the potential of waste abaca (Manila hemp) fiber as reinforcing agent in an inorganic aluminosilicate material known as geopolymer. In this study, the waste fibers were subjected to different chemical treatments to modify the surface characteristics…

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. 2017 May 25;10(6):579.

doi: 10.3390/ma10060579.

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Roy Alvin J Malenab et al. Materials (Basel). .

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Abstract

The use of natural fibers in reinforced composites to produce eco-friendly materials is gaining more attention due to their attractive features such as low cost, low density and good mechanical properties, among others. This work thus investigates the potential of waste abaca (Manila hemp) fiber as reinforcing agent in an inorganic aluminosilicate material known as geopolymer. In this study, the waste fibers were subjected to different chemical treatments to modify the surface characteristics and to improve the adhesion with the fly ash-based geopolymer matrix. Definitive screening design of experiment was used to investigate the effect of successive chemical treatment of the fiber on its tensile strength considering the following factors: (1) NaOH pretreatment; (2) soaking time in aluminum salt solution; and (3) final pH of the slurry. The results show that the abaca fiber without alkali pretreatment, soaked for 12 h in Al₂(SO₄)₃ solution and adjusted to pH 6 exhibited the highest tensile strength among the treated fibers. Test results confirmed that the chemical treatment removes the lignin, pectin and hemicellulose, as well as makes the surface rougher with the deposition of aluminum compounds. This improves the interfacial bonding between geopolymer matrix and the abaca fiber, while the geopolymer protects the treated fiber from thermal degradation.

Keywords: abaca (Manila hemp) fiber; chemical treatment; definitive screening design of experiment; fiber-reinforced composite; geopolymer; tensile strength; waste utilization.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

Waste abaca from Dumaguete, Philippines: (a) as received; and (b) segregated into 100 strands.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Chemical treatment and characterization of waste abaca fiber.

Figure 3

Figure 3

X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak deconvolution method to measure crystallinity index.

Figure 4

Figure 4

Three-point flexural strength test.

Figure 5

Figure 5

Actual vs. Predicted Plot (– – – – 0.05 significance curve; – – – –mean) for the regression model and the model coefficients.

Figure 6

Figure 6

Interaction plot matrix of the factors for chemical treatment of the abaca fibers.

Figure 7

Figure 7

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of: (a) untreated abaca; (b) NaOH-treated abaca; (c) NaOH + Al2(SO4)3 treated abaca; and (d) precipitate or residue from the spent solution of Al2(SO4)3 treatment.

Figure 8

Figure 8

XRD spectra of untreated (a) and NaOH-treated (b) abaca fibers.

Figure 9

Figure 9

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images at low and high magnification of raw (untreated), NaOH-treated and Al2(SO4)3-treated abaca fibers: (a) raw (untreated); (b) NaOH treated; (c) without NaOH pretreatment; 12 h soaking; final pH = 6; (d) with NaOH pretreatment; 12 h; pH = 6; (e) without NaOH pretreatment; 12 h; pH = 4.5; and (f) with NaOH pretreatment; 0.5 h, pH = 6. Low and high magnification are labeled as “1” and “2”, respectively.

Figure 10

Figure 10

Sample EDS spectra of: (a) NaOH-treated; and (b) Al2(SO4)3-treated abaca.

Figure 11

Figure 11

Thermograms of: (a) untreated; (b) treated solely with Al2(SO4)3; (c) alkali-pretreated; and (d) alkali and Al2(SO4)3 solution-treated abaca fiber samples.

Figure 12

Figure 12

Fracture surface of pristine geopolymer, reinforced with untreated abaca and reinforced with treated abaca.

Figure 13

Figure 13

SEM images of composite fractured surfaces: (a) reinforced with untreated abaca; (b) reinforced with treated abaca; (c) interface between untreated abaca fiber and geopolymer matrix and (d) interface between treated abaca fiber and geopolymer matrix.

Figure 14

Figure 14

SEM image (a) and thermogram of untreated abaca fibers and treated abaca fibers (b) from the geopolymer composite.

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References

    1. Khalil H.P., Bhat A.H., Yusra A.F. Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2012;87:963–979. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.08.078. – DOI
    1. Balasubramanian M. Composite Materials and Processing. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group; Boca Raton, FL, USA: 2014. pp. 2–4.
    1. Chandrasekar M., Ishak M.R., Sapuan S.M., Leman Z., Jawaid M. A review on the characterisation of natural fibres and their composites after alkali treatment and water absorption. Plast. Rubber Compos. Process. Appl. 2017;46:119–136. doi: 10.1080/14658011.2017.1298550. – DOI
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KIND Launches Mobile Payment App For The Cannabis Industry

Paying for cannabis at a dispensary has always been challenging for both the customer and the dispensary owner. The refusal of major banks and credit cards to work with cannabis companies has resulted in a patchwork of increasingly creative ways to replicate the experience of using debit and credit cards. Many dispensaries often just install […]

The post KIND Launches Mobile Payment App For The Cannabis Industry appeared first on Green Market Report.

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Paying for cannabis at a dispensary has always been challenging for both the customer and the dispensary owner. The refusal of major banks and credit cards to work with cannabis companies has resulted in a patchwork of increasingly creative ways to replicate the experience of using debit and credit cards. Many dispensaries often just install an ATM machine in the store for cash purchases, frequently hitting the consumer up for yet another expense to buy legal cannabis. Or the stores create some kind of electronic workaround that has been called into question by banking regulators. Now there is a new product that looks like it will have solved these problems but without the questionable financial gymnastics.

Tech company KindPay has created a closed-loop payment system, which means that it is able to be used only with specific merchants. Similar to other retail stores and industry mobile apps, users can credit their KindPay account with money from their debit and credit card. The mobile app will be able to be used by specific people in the cannabis industry, including dispensaries, growers, and consumers. KindPay is powered by Herring Bank, and according to the company, it is the cannabis industry’s first true closed-loop payment system. It is FDIC-insured and can be used with various debit and credit cards, including Visa, MasterCard, and Discover. 

“The development and launch of KindPay has been long-awaited by the cannabis industry,” said KIND Financial founder David Dinenberg, “This new app will allow dispensaries, growers, and consumers alike, to transact transparently and safely. Also, due to the pandemic, contactless and cashless transactions have become safer ways to pay.”

KIND will support participating merchants by providing devices for merchants to process transactions with, as well as an Application Programming Interface (API) to allow virtually any point of sale system to integrate with KindPay. 

KIND’s seed-to-sale software systems 

Leading up to this groundbreaking mobile app launch, KIND provided software that allowed regulators, in real-time, to know where and how much cannabis and hemp is being grown, processed, or sold. They are a well-respected seed-to-sale tracking software, and now they are getting involved with the payment system side of things. With KindPay’s launch, cannabis merchants that have been traditionally declined will have a reliable and safe payment system to use. Traditional banks tend to decline cannabis businesses, even non-plant touching and ancillary businesses, because cannabis is seen as very high-risk. Due to cannabis’ Schedule I classification, it is federally illegal and therefore banks will more than likely not want to work with those in the industry – even those operating legally at the state level. 

This cashless system also provides additional comfort for people worried about the coronavirus and physician transactions. The software will be available for legally operating cannabis business owners and operators. 

The app will be free for consumers and available on the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. 


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Source: https://www.greenmarketreport.com/kind-launches-mobile-payment-app-for-the-cannabis-industry/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=kind-launches-mobile-payment-app-for-the-cannabis-industry

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CBD Full Spectrum Distillate

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We don’t advertise it on our site but we would sell you some bulk full spectrum distillate.

Our hemp was organically grown in Minnesota and the distillate tests above 80%, I can get you the COA if you’re interested! We’re relatively new so we aren’t on the vendor list as of yet, but happy to provide whatever you need to feel confident in our products.

Our site is stillycbd.com, but we don’t advertise wholesale products there right now.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jzo725/cbd_full_spectrum_distillate/

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Martha Stewart™ CBD Wellness Gummies – 15 Flavor Sampler Coming Soon!

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Martha Stewart™ CBD Wellness Gummies – 15 Flavor Gummy Sampler

Martha Stewart™ CBD Wellness Gummy Sampler Available For Pre Sale Wednesday November 18th
Find your inner Martha with the latest addition to the Martha Stewart™ CBD line of products. It’s no secret that the Martha Stewart™ CBD wellness gummies have been a big hit. This new 15 flavor gummy sampler includes a variety of flavors that Martha likes to bake with. Delicious gourmet gummy flavors developed by Martha Stewart herself. CBD wellness has never been this delicious or satisfying.

Martha CBD Sampler
The Martha Stewart CBD Wellness Gummies include 10 mg of CBD isolate per gummy. Each 15 Flavor Sampler contains 60 total gummies and a total of 600mg CBD per container. Explore a variety of flavors as you incorporate these gummies into your wellness routine.
Martha Stewart™ CBD Wellness Gummies 15 Flavor Sampler (60ct) $64.99

Martha Stewart™ CBD Wellness 15 Flavor Gummy Sampler includes the following flavors:

  • red raspberry
  • huckleberry
  • rhubarb
  • passion fruit
  • persian lime
  • strawberry
  • pink grapefruit
  • calamondin
  • green apple
  • black currant
  • blood orange
  • kumquat
  • quince
  • meyer lemon
  • black raspberry

Martha Stewart™ CBD Wellness Gummies – 15 Flavor Gummy Sampler Coming Soon to Anavii Market

Anavii Market is one of the few exclusive third party retailers to carry Martha Stewart CBD Products. We are proud to offer this line of products carefully crafted in collaboration with Canopy Growth Corporation. Canopy is a leader in the CBD and Cannabis space, and Martha has a long history of helping people achieve Better Living. Canopy and Martha have collaborated to make CBD available to everyone in a simple and delicious way.

Martha Stewart™ CBD Wellness Gummies – 15 Flavor Gummy Sampler Available Wednesday November 18th 20% off for a Limited Time!

Martha Stewart CBD Wellness 15-Flavor Sampler will be available for order on Wednesday November 18th. Available just in time for the holidays. Show that special someone you care by buying them a Martha Stewart CBD 15-Flavor Gummy Sampler. This makes a perfect gift for your significant other, yourself, your friend, a family member, or someone you care about!

Source: https://www.anaviimarket.com/blogs/news/martha-stewart-cbd-wellness-gummies-15-flavor-sampler-now-available

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