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Metal

Biodegradable near-infrared-photoresponsive shape memory implants based on black phosphorus nanofillers

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In this paper, we propose a new shape memory polymer (SMP) composite with excellent near-infrared (NIR)-photoresponsive shape memory performance and biodegradability. The composite is fabricated by using piperazine-based polyurethane (PU) as thermo-responsive SMP incorporated with black-phosphorus (BP) sheets as NIR photothermal nanofillers. Under 808?nm light irradiation, the incorporated BP sheets with concentration of only 0.08?wt% enable rapid temperature increase over the glass temperature of PU and trigger the shape change of the composite with shape recovery rate of ∼100%. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity examinations demonstrate the good biocompatibility of the PU/BP composite, and it degrades naturally into non-toxic carbon dioxide and water from PU and non-toxic phosphate from BP. By implanting PU/BP columns into back subcutis and vagina of mice, they exhibit excellent shape memory activity to change their shape quickly under moderate 808?nm light irradiaiton. Such SMP composite enable the development of intelligent implantable devices, which can be easily controlled by the remote NIR light and degrade gradually after performing the designed functions in the body.

This article originally appeared in Biomaterials? 164, 2018, Pages 11-21.

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Sign up or log in to your free Materials Today account to download the full article.

In this paper, we propose a new shape memory polymer (SMP) composite with excellent near-infrared (NIR)-photoresponsive shape memory performance and biodegradability. The composite is fabricated by using piperazine-based polyurethane (PU) as thermo-responsive SMP incorporated with black-phosphorus (BP) sheets as NIR photothermal nanofillers. Under 808?nm light irradiation, the incorporated BP sheets with concentration of only 0.08?wt% enable rapid temperature increase over the glass temperature of PU and trigger the shape change of the composite with shape recovery rate of ∼100%. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity examinations demonstrate the good biocompatibility of the PU/BP composite, and it degrades naturally into non-toxic carbon dioxide and water from PU and non-toxic phosphate from BP. By implanting PU/BP columns into back subcutis and vagina of mice, they exhibit excellent shape memory activity to change their shape quickly under moderate 808?nm light irradiaiton. Such SMP composite enable the development of intelligent implantable devices, which can be easily controlled by the remote NIR light and degrade gradually after performing the designed functions in the body.

This article originally appeared in Biomaterials? 164, 2018, Pages 11-21.

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/biomaterials/features/biodegradable-nearinfraredphotoresponsive-shape/

Metal

Hoa Phat’s new vessel completes first voyage with coal shipment

The Harmony vessel of the company has transported more than 80,000 mt of coal from Australia to Hoa Phat Dung Quat Steel Integrated Complex.

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Vietnam-based steelmaker Hoa Phat Group has announced that the Harmony vessel of the company’s subsidiary Hoa Phat Shipping Joint Stock Company has transported more than 80,000 mt of coal from Australia to Hoa Phat Dung Quat Steel Integrated Complex in the central Quang Ngai province, Vietnam. This is the first trip of the Harmony after being delivered to Hoa Phat.

The vessel was built in Japan with modern equipment, and fully meets strict standards of quality and technical safety. It had a safe shipment throughout the journey.

The freight market has been characterized by a shortage of vessels. The freight cost of Kamsarmax vessels has doubled after the Lunar New Year holiday. Its new vessel helps Hoa Phat be proactive in importing raw materials for production as well as for exports, and at the same time reduces the risk of shipping charges in case of a price hike.

Hoa Phat Shipping Joint Stock Company owns two large ships of 90,000 mt each, carrying bulk cargoes such as coal and iron ore.

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Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-news/latest-news/hoa-phats-new-vessel-completes-first-voyage-with-coal-shipment-1195604.htm

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Metal

Robust Chinese economic data supports metals prices in Shanghai; LME metals consolidate

Base metals prices on the Shanghai Futures Exchange were for the most part stronger this morning, Friday April 16, supported by robust economic data, while the base metals on the London Metal Exchange were consolidating after yesterday’s strength, which followed strong US data.

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Base metals prices on the Shanghai Futures Exchange were for the most part stronger this morning, Friday April 16, supported by robust economic data, while the base metals on the London Metal Exchange were consolidating after yesterday’s strength, which followed strong US data.

* China’s gross domestic product (GDP) climbed by 18.3% year on year in Q1
* US treasury yields dropped, lifting gold and equity prices

Base metals
LME three-month base metals prices were mainly weaker this morning, the exception was nickel that was up 0.4% at $16,385, but it has been one of the weaker metals of late. The rest of the metals were down by an average of 0.3% while they consolidated yesterday’s gains that averaged 1.2%.

The most-active base metals contracts on the SHFE were mainly upbeat this morning, the exception was May aluminium that was down by 0.1%, while the rest were up by an average of 1.3%, with June copper leading the way for the second day with a 2.1% gain to 68,810 yuan ($10,536) per tonne – which followed a 1.8% rise on Thursday.

Precious metals
Spot gold prices were up by 0.1% at $1,766.14 per oz this morning, consolidating the 1.6% gains seen on Thursday. Spot silver ($25.91 per oz) and platinum ($1,203.30 per oz) were up by 0.4% and 0.8% respectively, while palladium ($2,745.10 per oz) was down by 0.1%.

Wider markets
The yield on US 10-year treasuries has dropped to 1.58% this morning, from 1.63% at a similar time on Thursday. At one stage yesterday it was as low as 1.53% – the recent high was just shy of 1.78% on March 30.

Asian-Pacific equities were mainly stronger on Friday, boosted by lower US bond yields and good data: the CSI 300 (+0.55%), the Hang Seng (+0.89%), the Kospi (+0.17%) and the Nikkei (+0.13%), while the ASX 200 (-0.06%) was slightly weaker.

Currencies
The US Dollar Index is consolidating this morning but the overall trend is downward; it was recently at 91.71, after 91.67 at a similar time from Thursday, having turned lower from 93.44 at the end of March.

Although most of the other major currencies are slightly weaker this morning, suggesting consolidation, they have generally been on a front footing in recent days: the euro (1.1968), sterling (1.3757) and the yen (108.65), with the Australian dollar (0.7719) slightly firmer.

Key data
Key data already out this morning in China showed GDP rose by 18.3% in the first quarter, compared with the same period in 2020, when the country went into lockdown due to the Covid-19 outbreak. This compared with 6.5% growth in the fourth quarter of last year. Chinese fixed asset investment, year-to-date, climbed by 25.6% in March, which was below the 27% expected, and industrial production climbed by 14.1%, which was also below the 18.3% expected. Retail sales in China climbed by 34.2% year on year, above the 28% increase that had been expected, and the unemployment rate fell to 5.3% from 5.5%.

Later there is data on Italian and European Union trade balances and EU consumer prices (CPI), with US data on housing starts, building permits and preliminary University of Michigan data on consumer sentiment and inflation expectations.

In addition, Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee member Jon Cunliffe is scheduled to speak and there are Euro and Ecofin meetings taking place.

Today’s key themes and views
More of the base metals have broken out of their consolidation patterns to the upside, with nickel and zinc the ones remaining rangebound for now. Underlying conditions look strong because prices have held up well over the past weeks and months when prices have been consolidating – with dips for the most part being limited.

With the seasonally strong second quarter now underway, it looks like buyers are now returning. We still see potential downside risks on the back of credit tightening in China, or as a result of a broader-based equity correction, but the path of least resistance in the metals seems to have once again swung higher.

Overall the longer-term outlook is supported by the combination of the promised infrastructure spending and the past seven to eight years of low capital expenditure in mining.

Gold’s rebound on Tuesday looked quite constructive and Thursday’s gains have provided further lift, no doubt helped by weaker bond yields and a dollar that is on a back footing. Given the risk of an equity correction, we are keeping an open mind as to whether the weaker bond yields and firmer gold are an early sign of a pick-up in haven demand.

William Adams

Fastmarkets

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Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/BaseMetalsMonthly/~3/o4zvriDVf78/Robust-Chinese-economic-data-supports-metals-prices-in-Shanghai-LME-metals-consolidate.html

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Brazilian steel industry and federal government to discuss steel supply

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The Brazilian government will reportedly meet with representatives of the Brazilian steel industry to discuss the supply of steel products, according to a media report by Estadao.

As reported by SteelOrbis, several industrial sectors said there has been a lack of certain steel products. Recently, the Brazilian steel association, IABr, labeled these claims as “unfounded” and “speculative.”

A Brazilian secretary within the nation’s ministry of economy is expected to meet on Thursday several undisclosed Brazilian mills to discuss the matter. Brazilian construction companies reportedly asked the Brazilian government to reduce an import tax to allow them to buy cheaper imported steel products.

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Source: https://www.steelorbis.com/steel-news/latest-news/brazilian-steel-industry-and-federal-government-to-discuss-steel-supply-1195566.htm

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