Connect with us

Heartland

Application of a sewage-based approach to assess the use of ten illicit drugs in four Chinese megacities

Sewage-based epidemiology was applied for the first time to a number of mainland Chinese megacities. The application monitored influents to 9 sewage treatment plants (STPs) to estimate the use of illicit drugs in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai. Altogether, 11.4 million inhabitants were covered during September-October 2012. 24-h composite raw sewage samples were collected for 4 consecutive days at each STP. Each collected sample was analyzed for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine…

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Sewage-based epidemiology was applied for the first time to a number of mainland Chinese megacities. The application monitored influents to 9 sewage treatment plants (STPs) to estimate the use of illicit drugs in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai. Altogether, 11.4 million inhabitants were covered during September-October 2012. 24-h composite raw sewage samples were collected for 4 consecutive days at each STP. Each collected sample was analyzed for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methylester, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, mephedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, ketamine, and norketamine. Through the analysis of these chemical residues, the use of amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, mephedrone, methadone, methamphetamine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone and ketamine among Chinese urban inhabitants was monitored. The results obtained demonstrated in a quantitative way that the drug use patterns of Chinese are different from their European counterparts. Abuse of methamphetamine and ketamine was particularly noteworthy in China, while consumption of cocaine and ecstasy, the most popular drugs in Europe, was very low among the sampled Chinese inhabitants. Further, the use of most drugs demonstrated a geographical trend, since their use was much higher in the southern cities of Shenzhen and Guangzhou than it was in Beijing and Shanghai. Interestingly, the exclusive, but minor, metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, was detected only sporadically. This would suggest that the use of heroin among Chinese urban users sampled in the study was low. Further, the patterns of drug use observed during the study are largely consistent with trends reported by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Overall, our study suggests that sewage-based epidemiology can readily be used to monitor the use of illicit drugs in those countries/regions where traditional means to monitor drug use patterns have only yielded limited or information of questionable reliability.

Keywords: China; Drugs of abuse; Ketamine; Methamphetamine; Sewage-based epidemiology; Wastewater.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24485909/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1854v2hhZntXmjLwJ2c8ICqk5dHszkjKaegUwgxvTg53irEIHf&fc=20200804212743&ff=20200814174852&v=2.11.5

Heartland

Need to get some cbd seeds for outdoor growing, any recommendations?

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/mrvfhj/need_to_get_some_cbd_seeds_for_outdoor_growing/

Continue Reading

Heartland

Love Hemp in UK got the top CBD award if your looking for good CBD

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/mrvcwh/love_hemp_in_uk_got_the_top_cbd_award_if_your/

Continue Reading

Heartland

Will CBD help appetite?

Republished by Plato

Published

on

Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/mrv114/will_cbd_help_appetite/

Continue Reading
Uncategorized4 days ago

Halo Collective Announces New Appointment to Board of Directors and Completes Securities Issuance to Independent Consultants, Related Parties, and Suppliers

Metal4 days ago

Registration open for IHEA annual meeting

Heartland2 days ago

Real Brands Inc. CEO Discusses Corporate Goals and Resolve in Audio Interview with …

Heartland4 days ago

Asia Pacific IoT command centre to be established in Adelaide

Heartland2 days ago

Harvard Study Finds Cannabis Effective for Chronic Pain

Heartland1 day ago

First time with WNC or any Indoor CBD in general.

Heartland4 days ago

does cbd help with dizziness?

Heartland1 day ago

Any sales for goin on ?

Heartland2 days ago

I just bought this brand that I have never seen before. Has anyone ever heard of it?

Heartland3 days ago

Are Delta-8 THC Syringes the Most Practical Way to Medicate?

Heartland20 hours ago

At Virtual Forum, Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers Calls on Lawmakers to Legalize Cannabis

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland9 hours ago

The future of the cannabis industry and sports

Heartland5 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Auckland CBD shop among newest locations of interest for Covid-positive border worker

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland3 days ago

Heartland2 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Heartland4 days ago

Northeast Regulators Talk Cannabis, Real Estate, and Regional Collaboration

Heartland5 days ago

Do you have a favorite CBD product?

News5 days ago

Get Ready for Some Volatility

Heartland4 days ago

Are there usually deals on 4/20? Especially at WNC.

Trending

A Cloud Nine Capital Entity Copyright © 2020 – All Rights Reserved Proudly Made in America