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Aluminum MMI: SHFE, LME trade sideways; India, Europe look to protect domestic industries

This month the Aluminum Monthly Metals Index (MMI) remained flat for this month’s index value, as the SHFE aluminum price and its LME counterpart trended sideways this past month. Do you use…

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This month the Aluminum Monthly Metals Index (MMI) remained flat for this month’s index value, as the SHFE aluminum price and its LME counterpart trended sideways this past month.

October 2020 Aluminum MMI chart

Do you use cost breakdowns in your aluminum negotiations? See other tips in negotiating with mills and service centers

SHFE, LME prices behavior

The SHFE aluminum price has traded sideways since mid-July. The price is averaging CNY14,661/mt over the past three months.

By August, the LME aluminum price started to follow the sideways trend as well, averaging $1,777/mt since then.

However, the SHFE aluminum price continued to move higher than its LME counterpart.

Throughout September, SHFE prices were approximately $370/mt higher than the LME price.

The arbitrage continues to promote imports in China, making it a net importer for a second consecutive month in August. This trade flow indicates large demand for aluminum in the Chinese market, which is well on its way to economic recovery.

The current state of trade raises the question: how much longer can China continue to export semi-finished metal if its cost base is approximately $370/mt over the LME? Are mills selling at a loss (or are they subsidized)?

Tariffs against China

China accounts for approximately 55% of global aluminum production.

Despite it being a net importer for the past few months, China is still a huge exporter of aluminum downstream products. Chinese exports caused other large markets to contemplate restrictions on Chinese aluminum imports.

Currently, India is seeking to develop policies to protect its own domestic production. India’s first measure might require every importer to obtain a license from the government for every shipment. Even though the measure applies to exports from all origins, the Federation of Indian Mineral Industries pointed out most of the country’s imports come from China.

Meanwhile, the European Commission imposed provisional anti-dumping duties on aluminum products from China, with duties reaching as high as 48%. The Commission opened an investigation in February after it suspected China of dumping aluminum extrusions.

The director general of the European Aluminium Association said the duties were not only crucial for the survival of the domestic aluminum market but also for a greener regional economy.

U.S. aluminum protectionism

The U.S. aluminum industry also took several measures to ensure the health of its domestic market.

The Aluminum Association’s Foil Trade Enforcement Working Group filed anti-dumping and countervailing duty petitions Sept. 29. The charges were for unfairly traded imports of aluminum foil from Armenia, Brazil, Oman, Russia, and Turkey.

In April 2018, the U.S. Department of Commerce implemented anti-dumping and countervailing duties on foil products from China. This shifted Chinese exports and, consequently, other producers redirected their exports into the U.S. The industry believes this might be a consequence of aluminum overcapacity in China driven by structural subsidies.

Actual metals prices and trends

The Chinese aluminum scrap price increased 0.8% month over month to $1,940.74/mt as of Oct. 1. LME primary three-month aluminum, however, dropped 1.0% to $1,780/mt.

Korean commercial 1050 aluminum sheet rose 4.5% to $2.99/kg. Meanwhile, its European equivalent declined 3.4% to $2,495/mt.

Chinese aluminum billet and aluminum bar rose 1.8% to $2,223/mt and $2,321/mt, respectively.

Chinese primary cash aluminum rose 0.1% to $2,157/mt. Finally, Indian primary cash aluminum decreased 1.5% to $1.96/kg.

Does your company have an aluminum buying strategy based on current aluminum price trends?

Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/agmetalminer/~3/zKCulGrlwBE/

Metal

Microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) composite nanolattices with ultrahigh toughness and cyclability

Abstract: Three-dimensional nanolattices have recently emerged as an effective strategy to achieve high strength at low densities, by harnessing the combination of rationally designed topologies and nanoscale size effects [1][2][3][4][5]. However, most metallic and ceramic nanolattices show an ineludible deterioration of mechanical properties upon repeated loading due to localized brittle fracture. Here, by development and deposition of CoCrNiTi0.1 microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) with extra low stacking fault energy, we fabricated ultratough MEA-coated nanolattices that can exhibit unprecedented surface wrinkling under compression. Particularly, nanolattices with alloy film thickness?∼?30?nm can repeatedly withstand strains exceeding 50% with negligible strut fracture, while the elastic polymer core promotes recoverability and structural integrity. Furthermore, owing to the high strength of the metallic film, our MEA composite nanolattices exhibited high energy absorption (up to 60?MJ?m−3) and specific strength (up to 0.1?MPa?kg−1?m3), offering a plethora of robust micro/nano-mechanical and functional applications.

Microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) composite nanolattices with ultrahigh toughness and cyclability
Republished by Plato

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Abstract: Three-dimensional nanolattices have recently emerged as an effective strategy to achieve high strength at low densities, by harnessing the combination of rationally designed topologies and nanoscale size effects [1][2][3][4][5]. However, most metallic and ceramic nanolattices show an ineludible deterioration of mechanical properties upon repeated loading due to localized brittle fracture. Here, by development and deposition of CoCrNiTi0.1 microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) with extra low stacking fault energy, we fabricated ultratough MEA-coated nanolattices that can exhibit unprecedented surface wrinkling under compression. Particularly, nanolattices with alloy film thickness?∼?30?nm can repeatedly withstand strains exceeding 50% with negligible strut fracture, while the elastic polymer core promotes recoverability and structural integrity. Furthermore, owing to the high strength of the metallic film, our MEA composite nanolattices exhibited high energy absorption (up to 60?MJ?m−3) and specific strength (up to 0.1?MPa?kg−1?m3), offering a plethora of robust micro/nano-mechanical and functional applications.

Microalloyed medium-entropy alloy (MEA) composite nanolattices with ultrahigh toughness and cyclability

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/amorphous/articles/s1369702120303576/

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Metal

Ultrahigh coulombic efficiency electrolyte enables Li||SPAN batteries with superior cycling performance

Abstract: Raising the coulombic efficiency of lithium metal anode cycling is the deciding step in realizing long-life rechargeable lithium batteries. Here, we designed a highly concentrated salt/ether electrolyte diluted in a fluorinated ether: 1.8?M LiFSI in DEE/BTFE (diethyl ether/bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)ether), which realized an average coulombic efficiency of 99.37% at 0.5?mA?cm−2 and 1 mAh cm−2 for more than 900 cycles. This electrolyte also maintained a record coulombic efficiency of 98.7% at 10?mA?cm−2, indicative of its ability to provide fast-charging with high cathode loadings. Morphological studies reveal dense, dendrite free Li depositions after prolonged cycling, while surface analyses confirmed the formation of a robust LiF-rich SEI layer on the cycled Li surface. Moreover, we discovered that this ether-based electrolyte is highly compatible with the low-cost, high-capacity SPAN (Sulfurized polyacrylonitrile) cathode, where the constructed Li||SPAN cell exhibited reversible cathode capacity of 579 mAh g−1 and no capacity decay after 1200 cycles. A cell where a high areal loading SPAN electrode (>3.5 mAh cm−2) is paired with only onefold excess Li was constructed and cycled at 1.75?mA?cm−2, maintaining a coulombic efficiency of 99.30% for the lithium metal. Computational simulations revealed that at saturation, the Li-FSI complex forms contact ion pairs, with a first solvation shell comprising DEE molecules, and a second solvation shell with a mix of DEE/BTFE. This study provides a path to enable high energy density Li||SPAN batteries with stable cycling.

Ultrahigh coulombic efficiency electrolyte enables Li||SPAN batteries with superior cycling performance
Republished by Plato

Published

on

Abstract: Raising the coulombic efficiency of lithium metal anode cycling is the deciding step in realizing long-life rechargeable lithium batteries. Here, we designed a highly concentrated salt/ether electrolyte diluted in a fluorinated ether: 1.8?M LiFSI in DEE/BTFE (diethyl ether/bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)ether), which realized an average coulombic efficiency of 99.37% at 0.5?mA?cm−2 and 1 mAh cm−2 for more than 900 cycles. This electrolyte also maintained a record coulombic efficiency of 98.7% at 10?mA?cm−2, indicative of its ability to provide fast-charging with high cathode loadings. Morphological studies reveal dense, dendrite free Li depositions after prolonged cycling, while surface analyses confirmed the formation of a robust LiF-rich SEI layer on the cycled Li surface. Moreover, we discovered that this ether-based electrolyte is highly compatible with the low-cost, high-capacity SPAN (Sulfurized polyacrylonitrile) cathode, where the constructed Li||SPAN cell exhibited reversible cathode capacity of 579 mAh g−1 and no capacity decay after 1200 cycles. A cell where a high areal loading SPAN electrode (>3.5 mAh cm−2) is paired with only onefold excess Li was constructed and cycled at 1.75?mA?cm−2, maintaining a coulombic efficiency of 99.30% for the lithium metal. Computational simulations revealed that at saturation, the Li-FSI complex forms contact ion pairs, with a first solvation shell comprising DEE molecules, and a second solvation shell with a mix of DEE/BTFE. This study provides a path to enable high energy density Li||SPAN batteries with stable cycling.

Ultrahigh coulombic efficiency electrolyte enables Li||SPAN batteries with superior cycling performance

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/amorphous/articles/s1369702120303382/

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Metal

Modulation of physical properties of organic cocrystals by amino acid chirality

Abstract: Amino acid chirality plays an important role in conveying directionality and specificity to their supramolecular organization. However, the impact of enantiopure and racemic amino acids on the favorable packing and macroscopic properties of organic cocrystals with nonchiral coformers is poorly understood. Herein, we performed a systematic study of the effect of chirality on the macroscopic properties of acetylated alanine (AcA) single crystals and cocrystals with a nonchiral photo-sensitive bipyridine derivative (BPE). Cocrystallization with BPE produced a marked morphology transition that improved the supramolecular chirality, thermal stability and mechanical strength of AcA crystals. The distinct supramolecular packing modes were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. The highest rigidity was observed for BPE/dl-AcA, while BPE/d-AcA and BPE/l-AcA crystals exhibited higher efficiency of photo-induced emission for fluorescent imprinting, as well as significantly higher piezoelectricity. This work provides a striking illustration that subtle differences in amino acid stereochemistry translate into tunable macroscopic properties of organic cocrystals for future applications in rigid solids, fluorescent imprinting, and energy harvesting.

Modulation of physical properties of organic cocrystals by amino acid chirality
Republished by Plato

Published

on

Abstract: Amino acid chirality plays an important role in conveying directionality and specificity to their supramolecular organization. However, the impact of enantiopure and racemic amino acids on the favorable packing and macroscopic properties of organic cocrystals with nonchiral coformers is poorly understood. Herein, we performed a systematic study of the effect of chirality on the macroscopic properties of acetylated alanine (AcA) single crystals and cocrystals with a nonchiral photo-sensitive bipyridine derivative (BPE). Cocrystallization with BPE produced a marked morphology transition that improved the supramolecular chirality, thermal stability and mechanical strength of AcA crystals. The distinct supramolecular packing modes were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. The highest rigidity was observed for BPE/dl-AcA, while BPE/d-AcA and BPE/l-AcA crystals exhibited higher efficiency of photo-induced emission for fluorescent imprinting, as well as significantly higher piezoelectricity. This work provides a striking illustration that subtle differences in amino acid stereochemistry translate into tunable macroscopic properties of organic cocrystals for future applications in rigid solids, fluorescent imprinting, and energy harvesting.

Modulation of physical properties of organic cocrystals by amino acid chirality

Source: https://www.materialstoday.com/amorphous/articles/s136970212030362x/

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