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Adjusting to a new financing reality

Partha Pratim Basistha reports on a period of change in the Indian aggregates and construction

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Partha Pratim Basistha reports on a period of change in the Indian aggregates and construction equipment industries – in a report by our sister title Aggregates Business

India’s construction equipment and aggregates sectors are passing through an interesting phase. Despite demand fundamentals remaining firm, under the recent directives of India’s main Central Reserve Bank state-managed banks and non-banking financial institutions are releasing less finance to construction companies, quarry owners, and equipment rental agencies. This has slowed down equipment acquisitions. This year’s extended monsoons have been a further demand dampener for earthmoving equipment and rigid dump truck sales. The hardening financial assistance stance is due to large volumes of non-performing assets accumulated over recent years.

Due to tightening financial support for new equipment purchases and the general running of operations, plant and machinery owners are increasingly seeking new equipment models that are cost-effective to own and operate. They are, however, willing to invest in advanced levels of service support from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and dealers that can result in higher levels of existing equipment utilisation and help keep operating costs in check. As a result, Indian and foreign equipment manufacturers are tailoring their product and service offerings accordingly.

Ashoktaru Chattopadhayay, Sandvik’s global business development manager- Crushing & Screening Plants Solutions, said the company is increasingly entering into operational contract support for its plant owners. “Backed by this support, they are able to park or timely arrange for funds for carrying out their operation maintenance schedule. It allows for timely procurements of parts, the taking care of wear and tear and for higher availability of plants. Our support also helps customers to keep their capital and operational expenditure under control.”

Sandvik India is providing an operational support contract to J.M. Mahtre, one of India’s biggest road contractors, which is helping to build Navi Mumbai International Airport, in Mumbai, Western India. The airport is due to become operational in 2023. On the infrastructure megaproject, J.M. Mahtre is deploying 12 Sandvik plant with capacities ranging between 200 and 400 tonnes per hour. The fleet includes a mix of CJ 211 cone crushers, CJ 409 jaw crushers, and CH 430, CH 440 and CH 550 cone crushers.

Metso India is also working towards reducing the costs of customer plant operations by offering higher additional-value services support. “Backed by a mix of our annual maintenance and operational services contracts, which is based on our philosophy of life cycle offerings, plant owners in India with Metso solutions can focus on the core business of marketing their aggregates,” said Pekka Vauramo, Metso president & CEO, during an interview with ABI during his recent visit to inaugurate Metso’s extended plant in Alwar, Rajasthan, Northern India.

Newer business strategies to reduce ownership costs via product reengineering and a wider product portfolio, coupled with newer services, are becoming the norm among Indian crushing and screening manufacturers.

Propel Industries, a major Indian manufacturer of mobile and stationery crushing and screening plant and solutions for manufactured sand production, has recently set up a state-of-the art facility for manufacturing tracked plant in Coimbatore, South India.

V. Senthil Kumar, the company’s managing director, said: “The character of Indian rocks is quite different and varies from region to region. We have been carrying out design improvisations to suit local plant owner requirements, while also fully ensuring the right cubicle shape of the crushed aggregates to deliver better strength. Led by our strong engineering integration, beginning with the designing of the plants to manufacturing, we are able to provide international solutions at Indian prices.” Propel has recently been exporting its plant to Middle East markets.

The digitisation of products and services via the internet of things (IoT) is an emerging trend, helping curtail costs of plant operation in India. Equipment owners are increasingly looking to maximise output from existing solutions, delaying fresh acquisitions due to tighter access to banking and non-banking institution finance.

Hitachi ZAXIS GI series excavators in India now come with Global e-Service – a platform developed by Hitachi, Japan. It includes a premium offering called ConSite, which is offered as standard with all GI machines. ConSite uses comparative data of similar class machines operating in the region to provide insightful advice and recommendations to improve operations. There is also an alarm service which uses machine events and acts as an intelligent filter to communicate machine breakdown and raise alarms with unit owners and their dealers.

Volvo India’s CareTrack excavator telematics system gives equipment owners access to a wide range of machine monitoring information, enabling higher model utilisation.

KOMTRAX (Level-3) for Komatsu excavators monitors machine health, watches performance and provides economical operation guidance to operators. Besides basic data like machine location and operating hours, it provides vital information on fuel consumption, mode selection, energy saving and guidance, while also tracking maintenance schedules and offering timely alerts. Telematics has been beneficial for larger-sized quarry owners and ready-mixed concrete plant operators with sizeable equipment fleets.

Saurabh Agarwal, director, LSC Group, said: “Telematics has been extremely advantageous for us with operating margins under greater pressure. We have our centralised office at Rudrapur in Uttarkhand, North India, with plants operating across nine locations. Volvo’s IT-enabled Matris solution in our excavators enables us to centrally access real-time data on fuel consumption, idling hours and switch-off time. It allows us to keep operating costs in check and optimise excavator usage on-site. Telematics solutions offered by Hitachi and Liugong have also been beneficial.”

LSC was the first crushing plant owner to acquire LiuGong’s H-Series intelligent wheeled loaders for its Uttarakhand facility.

Ashok Leyland, an Indian heavy commercial vehicle and tipper truck manufacturing major with a strong presence on quarrying and cement plant sites across the country, has digital initiatives to increase the availability of its trucks, thus increasing customers’ profitability.

Mullagiri Surendranath, Ashok Leyland vice president, said: “Under our ‘I-Alert’ digital telematics solutions, our individual customers and, most importantly, fleet owners, will be acquainted on a real-time basis with the various operating conditions of their trucks. This includes fuel consumption and trip cycle times. This greatly assists with quicker redeployment of the tipper if found idling. Quicker redeployment is a vital requirement in the newer, bigger capacity cement plants. With various codes being generated in case of functional anomalies, I-Alert will also facilitate preventive and predictive maintenance and help encourage safer utilisation of the trucks, as driver shortcomings, like fast driving on sharp bends, harsh braking, and fatigue, can be gauged and acted upon.”

in January 2019, Volvo Trucks India set up a Centralised Uptime Centre in Bangalore, South India. The centre offers an extensive end-to-end, real-time product services programme based on analysis through telematics, utilising the remote diagnostics of Volvo trucks to enable their timely maintenance and repair.

V. Venkateswarlu, vice president, Aftermarket, Volvo Trucks India, said: “The centre gathers real-time information on where and how the trucks are working. The information is then analysed, and measures are suggested to rectify the problem. Monitoring is done on the driving pattern of the operators to see whether advanced features of our trucks, such as advanced I-Shift transmissions, are being utilised to optimise performance. Braking frequencies are also monitored, as frequent braking can bring pressure on the axles.

“Since our trucks are engineered to deliver faster cycle times, the centre monitors their unloading time and number of trips made. In case of reduced cycle times, possible reasons like unwarranted operator behaviour and probable breakdown are taken into consideration. Following this, a dedicated cross-functional team at the centre analyses the causes and works out the required solution. Based on the record of the vehicle’s utilisation rate, the centre will communicate back to the vehicle on preventive and predictive maintenance needs, along with an advice on parts replacements.”

There are 12 Volvo Trucks Uptime Centres in India. The centres extend knowledge support to their customers and dealers. The Centralised Command Centre in Bangalore gathers information from various centres and recommends proactive and reactive services.

The Command Centre is presently monitoring 5,800 Volvo Trucks India models. Trucks sold by Volvo India since 2014 have been assimilated with the centre’s digitised monitoring system.

Volvo Penta will use its tried and tested selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for Indian OEMs when the stringent BS CEV IV emission norms come into effect in India in October 2020. The major engine maker has products ready for the BS CEV IV in off-highway applications.

“Since mid-2019, we have been working with several customers and OEMs on BS CEV IV-compliant engines. We undertake extensive field-testing on engine performance, installation and application, including in the most abusive field conditions for thousands of hours so that we can develop robust engines.

“With the stringent emission regulations, all the engine suppliers will have to move to electronic engines with an after-treatment system. In fact, Volvo Penta had introduced electronically controlled engines in 2006 in India, independent of the emission regulations. Along with a cleaner environment, the machine owner and operator benefit from a lower cost of ownership, greater reliability and stable operations over the lifetime of the engine,” said Miron Thoms, vice president & head – Volvo Penta India.

Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. (KOEL) is a major Indian on- and off highway engine manufacturer that supplies its solutions to leading Indian and foreign OEMs in India.

Sanjeev Nimkar, KOEL chief operating officer, said: “Kirloskar Oil Engines has initiated field trials for its BS IV engines for use in backhoe loaders, compactors, wheeled loaders, motor graders, self-loading concrete mixers and cranes. These are all complied with stringent BS IV emissions in Phase I, and for excavators which will have to comply in Phase II. Our new BS1V engines will provide the same ease of operation, fuel efficiency, robustness, durability and reliability that Kirloskar engines are known for.”

While there are stronger, concerted initiatives on behalf of equipment manufacturers and owners towards reducing owning and operating costs of equipment, stakeholders, government agencies, project owners and developers are increasingly looking to deliver more ecologically-minded and sustainable road construction projects.

Sanjeev Kumar, chief engineer at India’s Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH), said: “The ambitious target of constructing 15,000 kilometres of National Highways by 2020 has led to a colossal consumption of aggregates, estimated to be about 150 million tonnes. This is despite India’s National Highways constituting only two per cent of the total road network. Though construction of roads is indispensable for any growing economy, there is a dire need to curtail exploitation of natural resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during road construction projects. To make this happen it will be essential to recycle and reuse bituminous materials, backed by milling technologies.”

MoRTH has issued guidelines on the utilisation of recycled materials, in which it stresses the use of fly ash. The Indian Road Congress has also framed guidelines on the usage of waste plastic, with 350 kilometres of roads being identified for this purpose. Through this utilisation of geosynthetic materials, dependence on virgin aggregates can be largely reduced.

Sharing India’s Central Road Research Institute’s (CRRI) blueprint for sustainable road construction, Dr. Satish Chandra, director, CRRI, said: “As availability of aggregates is reducing fast, Indian Road Congress IRC 37 2018 guidelines stipulates usage of polymer stabiliser mixed with base course materials. To curtail usage of aggregates, it is essential to use hot and cold recycling for road rehabilitation projects. CRRI has recently undertaken some critical research on cement grouted bituminous mix (CGBM). The advantages of CGBM are wide, as its life cycle is longer than bituminous concrete.”

Dr. Chandra continued: “We have recently looked at the use of steel slag on the Ranchi-Jamshedpur (Eastern India) highway rehabilitation. We have also conducted studies of the utilisation of ferrochrome as a provider of greater [highway] strength.”

According to Dr. Chandra, MoRTH will soon be announcing more waste plastic and slag for highway rehabilitation trials. He added: “CRRI can be a suitable partner to this venture as Tata Steel has approached us for utilisation of waste slag.”

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Source: https://www.aggregateresearch.com/news/adjusting-to-a-new-financing-reality/

Concrete

Why Does Concrete Crack?

One of the biggest hesitations people have when it comes to choosing concrete for their projects is that it cracks over time. While this practical, durable material is one of the strongest goods on the market, the forces of time and nature will eventually cause it to crack–especially if it’s been installed by a non-reputable
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One of the biggest hesitations people have when it comes to choosing concrete for their projects is that it cracks over time.

While this practical, durable material is one of the strongest goods on the market, the forces of time and nature will eventually cause it to crack–especially if it’s been installed by a non-reputable company.

But why does concrete crack, and is there anything that will prevent this from happening?

These 5 mistakes are some of the most common causes of concrete cracks.

1. The concrete dried too fast

Faster is not always better. If your concrete mix doesn’t have enough water in it, it will dry too quickly and crack prematurely. Depending on the project, it should take at least a few weeks, maybe even a month, to dry completely.

2. Your contractor put too much water in the mix

Poorly mixed concrete can create a range of problems. Just like having too little water in the mix can cause it to crack, so can having too much water. Water must combine with the concrete at just the right pace so that it can cure and set properly. 

3. Control joints weren’t used

Your concrete must be able to properly expand and contract in different temperatures, otherwise it’ll crack. Control joints are made specifically to help your concrete move about without breaking. 

If your contractor doesn’t use these joints, there won’t be extra room for the slab to adjust its size with the changing temperatures, and it will end up cracking due to its internalized pressure.

4. It was too cold when your concrete was poured

Just like the amount of water affects concrete’s hydration process, so does cold weather. When the temperature drops too low, concrete won’t be able to cure correctly. In these situations, the pour will either need to be postponed, or the subsurface will need to be warmed before pouring. 

5. Your concrete is too thin

Concrete that’s too thin is extremely susceptible to cracking. The proper thickness of your concrete will vary based on its purpose. For example, a driveway that’s meant to support vehicles needs to be thicker than a sidewalk that is not.

Improper concrete thickness is one of the top reasons why DIY concrete projects fail. When taking on a massive project like this on your own, it’s easy to miscalculate the weight your concrete will be expected to bear and the subsequent thickness necessary. Unfortunately, this will result in severe premature cracking.

At Port Aggregates, our contractors have 40 years’ worth of experience built into their pours. Our beautiful concrete has been trusted for decades with good reason. When you hire our professionals, you can say goodbye to premature cracking and rest assured that your slab has been installed properly. Contact us today to request a quote!

Source: https://www.portaggregates.com/why-does-concrete-crack/

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Concrete

Jan 2, How To Form and Pour A Concrete Slab – The #1 Resource on The Web

Learn how to form and pour a concrete slab. My step by step guide will teach you everything you need to know from forming to pouring to finishing.

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how to pour concrete
how to pour a concrete slab

The tools and materials you need to form and pour a concrete slab

MATERIALS:

  • Ready-mix concrete (yardage will depend on size of slab)
  • Wire mesh or Rebar reinforcement
  • Anchor bolts

If your concrete slab is smaller, you can use bags of concrete instead or ready-mix.

Find out how many bags of concrete it takes to make a yard. I did all the calculations for you.

On my Tools Page you can find all the tools required to form and pour concrete.

I also have a concrete yardage calculator that shows you how many yards you need and how many bags of concrete you’ll need.

tools used to form and pour a concrete slab






step by step: how to pour a concrete pad

These are the basic steps I use form and pour concrete slabs. 

I also have a step by step video course with multiple training videos that teaches you all you need to know about how to install your own concrete slab: My Concrete Slab Course

step 1. prepare the area for concrete

how to pour concrete slab prep

Under your concrete slab there should be a compacted base of gravel. You can also use road base, crushed rock, or sand, as long as it’s well compacted.

You’ll probably have to remove some of the existing soil like in the picture above. We removed about 12 inches of the existing sod & loam and replaced it with 8″ of 3/4″ crushed gravel.

This area had a slight slope, so we had to remove more soil on one side than the other to get a level pad.

After installing the gravel, we raked it level (using my laser level) and ran a vibratory compactor over it to settle it and pack it very hard.

NOTE: You may need a permit to install a slab. Contact your local building code officer to see what they require for building a slab. You may also have to keep it a certain distance away from your property line.

PRO TIP: If you have a lot of soil to remove, you can rent a skid steer to do it much easier or hire an excavation contractor to prep the area for you.

BE SAFE: Some states require you to call Dig Safe (811) to check for any underground wires or utilities before you start digging. It’s state law. It’s a free service so be safe.

step 2. building the forms for a concrete slab

Lay out your forms. It’s better to have forms that are a little longer than the size of your slab.

Set up your leveling device. I’m using a self-leveling laser. You can use a 4′ level or a transit level. All 3 will get the job done.

My slab size is 14′ x 10′.

Starting on one side, measure the length of your slab and mark it on the form. (my mark was at 14′ on this side)

Mark each side the same way. (my next side was 10′)

You’ll use these marks to screw the forms together in the next step.

how to pour concrete slab
how to form a concrete slab

step 3. screw the forms together and square the slab

Use your marks to screw the forms together.

Align the inside of the form with your pencil mark. 

You can use a drill driver and deck screws like we do or you can use a hammer and nails to fasten the forms together.

I personally like to use screws, there’s less movement to the forms because you’re not banging on them with a hammer.

Screws are also easier to take out when you go to remove the forms.

After the forms are fastened together it’s time to square the slab.

I measure diagonally each way and slide the forms a little one way or the other until I get the exact same measurement for both diagonal measurements.

It usually takes a few times going back and forth checking until you get it exact.

When you have the slab square, you’re ready to stake it in place.

step 4. stake the forms and set them to grade

Use wooden stakes (or metal pins like me) to secure the forms in place. 

I like to stake each corner, about 8 – 12 inches from the corner, on both sides.

After my 4 corners are staked, I hammer in a stake about every 4′ on all the sides.

To make sure the forms are straight, I use a string line on top of the forms to check them as I stake the forms in place.

After pounding in all the stakes, I use my laser level to set all the forms perfectly level.

The receiver on my grade stick has a solid sounding “beep” when the form is at the pre-determined height. (5″ above my dirt grade)

Screw the form to the stake when it’s at the level you want.

Repeat for all 4 corners, then do the rest of the stakes and your forms will be level.

step 5. add the reinforcement 

wire mesh for a concrete slab

It’s time to install the reinforcement, I’m using wire mesh for this slab. The best way to cut wire mesh is with a pair of bolt cutters.

I buy the flat sheets of mesh, they measure 5′ x 10′. Some local lumber companies stock the flat wire. If not, they usually have the rolls of mesh (5′ x 150′ get these at HD and Lowe’s also)

Another good reinforcement to use for concrete slabs is 3/8 (#3) rebar or 1/2″ (#4) rebar. Rebar comes in 10′ or 20′ lengths and you cut it to the length you need.

Install rebar in 2′ or 3′ grids and tie it together using zip ties or a wire twister tool and wire ties.

If you use rebar and have to cut it, you can rent a rebar cutter at HD or a local tool rental store. Or you can buy a good rebar cutter / bender on Amazon.

10 x 10 concrete slab

After the wire mesh goes in, you’re ready to pour the concrete. If you’re using ready-mix concrete, choose a nice, dry day and call your local concrete supplier to schedule the pour.

Most likely you’ll have to give them about a weeks notice so don’t wait till the last minute to call.

If you’re using bags of concrete, use my concrete yardage calculator to see how many bags you’ll need.

Learn how to mix concrete by hand here.

step 6. how to pour the concrete

how to pour concrete for a slab

When the concrete arrives, ask the mixer driver for for a 6 inch slump. Slump is how dry or wet the concrete is mixed. A 6 slump is a good workable mix to pour with.

Start pulling the concrete around and filling in the forms. Pull up the wire mesh or rebar into the concrete as you pour. (or you can put small pieces of brick under it to hold it up)

Pour out as much as you’re comfortable with (maybe about half on something like this if you’re a beginner) before you screed it level.

how to pour concrete

If you’re mixing bagged concrete for your slab, it’s the same process. Just slower.

Mix enough concrete until you have enough of the forms filled to screed the concrete.

I like to use ready mix myself. It’s just faster and more convenient for me since we do multiple pours like this in a day. Either way is good. Ready mix will be more expensive on a smaller slab vs bag mix.

See how many bags of concrete come on a pallet and what they cost.

how to pour concrete

Screed the concrete level using a magnesium screed board like us or a straight 2 x 4. Use short pulling strokes and tip the screed slightly on the back edge.

Put pressure down on the screed as you pull it to make sure it rides on top of the forms. Let your helpers push concrete (to fill low spots) and pull concrete back (if it’s high) as you screed.

The concrete rakes (kumalongs) we use make moving the concrete around a lot easier.

how to bull float concrete

After you screed the concrete, use a bull float to smooth the surface.

A bull float pushes down the aggregate on the surface and brings up some cement paste (creme).

Tip up the front edge and slowly push it from one side to the other. When you reach the opposite side, stop, tip up the back edge and slowly pull it back to you.

It might take multiple passes in the same spot to get it nice and smooth (usually 1 – 3 times).

After you’ve done the entire slab this way, you’re almost done with the pour.

step 7. installing anchor bolts in concrete (optional)

how to install anchor bolts in a slab

If you’re using anchor bolts, now is the time to put them in the concrete. Measure out where you want them and make a mark in the concrete.

Push the anchor bolt into the concrete to the desired level you want. I usually leave about 2 inches sticking up out of the concrete.

PRO TIP: Once you push it into the concrete a few inches, slightly jiggle it up and down to consolidate the concrete around the bolt as you set it to your finished level.

Now you’re done pouring the concrete.

Learn how to pour and finish concrete in my private training academy The Concrete Underground.

watch and i’ll show you how to pour a concrete slab

If you’re thinking of doing a broom finish, smooth trowel finish, or a textured finish on the concrete, I can show you how to finish the concrete HERE.

Another very important step is to “cure” the concrete. Click on CONCRETE SEALER to learn about this.

You can remove the forms the next day. 


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Concrete

Jan 2, How To Mix Concrete – The Most In Depth Guide On The Internet

Learn how to mix concrete by hand using a wheelbarrow, concrete mixing machine, bucket or a tub. Detailed instructions and a video shows you how mix concrete.

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diy how to mix concrete at home

I’ll teach you my method of how to mix concrete: to get the proper firmness, texture, and strength.

tools you need for mixing concrete

Warning: Always wear safety gloves, safety goggles, and a dust mask when working with concrete.

Materials used for mixing concrete

  1. Concrete bag mix
  2. Water
  3. Portland cement – sand – gravel – optional if you’re mixing concrete from scratch.

Video: shows you how mix concrete by hand using quikrete

Owner Mike Day of Day’s Concrete Floors shows you how to properly mix concrete to repair a broken section of pool deck.

step by step: how to mix concrete

step 1. set up your mixing area

If you’re mixing multiple bags of concrete it’s a lot easier and faster if you have your mixing area organized.

If you’re only mixing one or two bags (like in the video) then all you need is your bag(s) of concrete, wheelbarrow, water, hoe.

On bigger projects it’s important to get all your bags in order and have plenty of water on hand. Having 2 people mixing and one spreading and smoothing the concrete makes the work go a lot faster.

How to mix concrete

step 2. measure the proper amount of water

I like to pre-measure the amount of water needed per bag and add it to the wheelbarrow first. 

I feel putting the water in first, then adding the dry concrete ingredients, makes the mixing process easier and faster.

how much mixing water to mix concrete

The water table below shows you how much water to use per bag. 

Depending on the bag size, there’s a range of water you can add for mixing.

For and 80 lb. bag of Quikrete, you can use 6 pints to 9 pints (3 – 4.5 quarts) of water to mix each bag.

I like to add the minimum amount to the wheelbarrow first, then add more water up to the maximum if I feel it needs it to get a good workable mixture.

If you use more water than the maximum amount recommended, then your concrete mix will not be as strong as advertised on the bag. 

mixing water for Quikrete

step 3. add the bag mix to your wheelbarrow (tub, bucket, or mixer)

how to mix Quikrete

Add about 1/2 to 2/3’s of the bag mix into the wheelbarrow. Mix that amount with the water until all the dry ingredients are saturated. 

Add the rest of the bag and keep mixing. Use this same technique if you’re mixing in a bucket or a tub.

If you’re mixing in an electric concrete mixer machine, then you can add the whole bag at one time.

how to mix bags of concreteMix half to two-thirds of the bag first then add the rest

step 4. mix the concrete to a workable consistency

Add the remainder of the bag and continue to mix the concrete. Move the hoe back and forth completely mixing the dry concrete mix with the water.

how to mix concrete by handToo dry – add more water and keep mixing

Add more water (up to the maximum amount) until you get your desired consistency.

Your concrete mix should look similar to the concrete below when it’s mixed properly.

It took me about 3 minutes to measure and add the water, then mix the 1 bag of concrete to this texture. 

Be careful not to get the mix too wet or it’s more likely to crack and won’t be as strong.

If you feel the concrete mix is too runny (wet) just add some more concrete mix from another bag until you feel it looks like the picture below.

PRO TIP: Always have an extra bag of concrete on hand just in case your project takes more concrete than you expected it to.

how to mix concrete in a wheelbarrowThis is what a good workable consistency looks like

step 5. place the mixed concrete where you need it

A good thing about mixing concrete in a wheelbarrow is you can wheel the concrete right where you need it.

Dump the concrete out of the wheelbarrow or shovel it out, like I’m doing on this job.

how to mix concrete

One way you can tell if you mixed the concrete properly is if you can move the concrete in place using a mag float and float it smooth going back and forth over it a few times.

how to mix concrete by hand

step 6. clean the concrete off your tools as soon as possible

Clean the wheelbarrow, hoe, and shovel with water as soon as you finish. The concrete mix will dry on them very quickly. 

PRO TIP: If the concrete mixture dries on your tools, use a margin trowel to scrape it off first, then rinse and scrub with water.

If you have a water hose and a stiff bristle brush nearby, rinse off the bulk of the concrete first, scrub the remaining cement paste, and rinse clean.

Do this in an area you don’t have to clean up the washed off concrete afterwards. Never wash off concrete onto your driveway or garage floor, it could permanently stain it.





how to mix concrete in a bucket

how to mix concrete with a drill

When I mix concrete in a  bucket, I like to have an over-sized bucket like this 18 gallon bucket in the picture. (best place to buy this is on Amazon)

I also like to use a mixing drill to mix my bags of concrete. A mixing drill like this one makes the mixing process very fast and is really the only way to mix concrete using a bucket.

The mixing process is the same as above: Add your water first, add 1/2 bag and mix, add remainder of bag and mix, add water up to the max. amount if needed. 

how to mix concrete in a mixer

If you’re using an electric concrete mixer machine it’ll speed up the mixing process because you can mix 2 – 3 bags of concrete at one time. (depending on the size of your mixer)

How to mix concrete in a mixer

The Mixing Process Goes Like This:

  1. Pre-measure your water and add it to the mixer first.
  2. Turn on the mixer before you add the first bag of concrete
  3. Add the first bag and let it mix for a minute (2 minutes if you’re only mixing one bag)
  4. Add the second bag and continue to mix for 2 – 3 minutes
  5. If the mix looks too dry add a little water as it’s mixing (only add water up to the max. amount)
how to mix concrete in an electric mixer

When the concrete looks mixed to the right consistency, dump it out of the mixer and into a wheelbarrow.

You can buy a really good portable electric concrete mixer machine on Amazon for $200 to $300 dollars.

what is the ratio for mixing concrete?

How do you mix your own concrete? 

If you’re using Portland cement, sand, and gravel to make your own concrete, you can use the 1-2-3 mixing ratio.

This concrete mixing ratio is done by mixing 1 shovel of cement with 2 shovels of sand and 3 shovels of gravel. (or some other accurate way to measure your ingredients)

Add the dry ingredients into a wheelbarrow or the electric mixer before you start adding water.

When you add more dry material to the mix, keep the 1:2:3 ratio of cement to sand to gravel the same for consistency and strength.

The amount of water you add to the mix will be based on how the mix feels while you’re mixing it. Use the wheelbarrow method above to judge how the final mix should look.

For more examples of proper concrete mix proportions check out my concrete mixing ratios for mixing concrete from cement, sand, gravel, and water. 

Learn how many bags of concrete it takes to make a cubic yard.

what’s the best type of concrete mix to use for:

1. Best concrete mix for a driveway is:

2. Best concrete mix for concrete countertops

3. Best concrete mix for fence posts

4. Best concrete mix for a patio

5. Best concrete mix for sidewalks

6. Best concrete mix for footings

7. Best concrete mix for slabs

Quikrete 5000 or Quikrete Crack Resistant Mix

Quikrete 5000 (add 2 cups cement)

Quikrete Regular or Fast Setting Mix

Quikrete Crack Resistant Mix

Quikrete Crack Resistant Mix

Quikrete Regular Mix

Quikrete 5000, Crack Resistant, or Regular

This list is my opinion only based off my experience using Quikrete Concrete mixes for my jobs.

Sometimes I’ll mix 1/2 a bag of Quikrete 5000 with one of the other bag mixes because it has a higher ratio of cement in it. This makes the overall mixture a little easier to finish.


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