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A History of CBD

Republished by Plato

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Decades of marijuana legislation have caused people to believe that the medicinal effects of CBD are a recent discovery, however, this is far from true. The truth is, CBD has been around for centuries, dating back to the Ancient Chinese! Join me today as I take you on a journey through time!

Shen Neng, Emperor of China, prescribed cannabis tea for the treatement of gout, rheumatism, tuberculosis and even bad memory as early as 2737 B.C. The use of the substance as a medication expanded through Asia, the Middle East and along Africa’s eastern coast, and some Hindu groups in India used cannabis for religious reasons and relaxation. Ancient doctors prescribed cannabis for everything from relief of pain to earache to even pregnancy.

By the late 18th century, early editions of American medical journals revealed guidelines for curing inflamed skin, incontinence, and venereal disease with hemp seeds and roots. Throughout Britain and America, Irish physician William O’Shaughnessy popularised medical use of marijuana. He discovered hemp relieved the pain of rheumatism and assisted in cases of rabies, tetanus and cholera, avoiding discomfort and nausea.

The Discovery 

Almost a century after the publishing of O’Shaughnessy’s report, developments in research and technology confirmed the existence of compounds in the cannabis plant. The first identification of a single cannabinoid was reported when British chemist Robert S. Cahn identified the partial cannabinol structure, which he subsequently identified as fully formed in 1940.

Two years later American scientist, Roger Adams made history when he effectively extracted the first cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). He also discovered Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in his research.

Early Research

Within the initial stages of cannabinoid research, researchers had minimal awareness of the cannabinoid structure and only limited understanding of the biological structure within the plant. Due to this, early scientists were unable to determine exactly which compound caused which effect.

Dr. Raphael Mechoulam made the first breakthrough in 1963 when he effectively recognised CBD’s stereochemistry. A year later, Mecholam made another discovery and identified THC’s stereochemistry, revealing the cannabinoids’ direct relationship to the hallucinogenic effects of cannabis use, and disassociating CBD as a mind-altering drug.

In the 1980s, Dr. Mechoulam and his colleagues conducted research on the possible use of CBD in epilepsy treatment in the study, Mechoulam and his team prescribed a group of 8 subjects with daily doses of 300mg of CBD. Half of the subjects stopped having seizures after just four months of treatment, with the others showing a significant decrease in the frequency of their seizures.

This was a huge discovery that could have changed the lives of more than 50 million epileptics around the globe, however, due to the prejudices towards cannabis during that time, the discovery was not publicised as any kind of breakthrough.Nevertheless, Dr. Mechoulam’s efforts would not go to waste.

Less than a decade later, research in cannabinoid medicinal applications reported the identification of additional cannabinoids, more knowledge of cannabinoid structure and the remarkable discovery of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) in our body— a network of receptors which bind with cannabinoid receptors.

Charlotte Figi

Charlotte Figi was born in 2006 with Dravet’s Syndrome, a rare but severe form of epilepsy. Charlotte had lost most of her ability to walk, speak, and eat by the age of just four, and was suffering 300 seizures a week. Although her parents had explored all the modern medicine solutions they could, nothing improved their daughter’s condition. They turned to CBD as a last resort.

Charlotte’s seizures ended nearly instantly after taking a small dose of CBD oil derived from a high-CBD hemp plant. When hours had passed by and Charlotte had no seizures, her parents knew that their wishes had been answered— CBD worked.

Now, Charlotte is experiencing only 2 or 3 seizures a month — a significant reduction from the previous 300 seizures a week. Charlotte now has the ability to live a normal life with most of her normal functions recovered.

CBD Today

The prejudice against CBD and cannabis has dramatically changed in the years since Charlotte’s story. Those who once opposed cannabis now turn to CBD for relief and their medicinal properties help change countless lives across the world. Although major progress has been made by the campaign, we are still only in the early stages. CBD continues to thrive at exponential rates.

Here in the UK, two CBD medicines have recently become available to prescribe in NHS hospitals, paving the way for more advancements in CBD in the future, and hopefully soon changing the world for the better.

Source: https://vaporshopdirectcbd.com/blogs/news/a-history-of-cbd

Heartland

The Role of Cannabinoids as Anticancer Agents in Pediatric Oncology

Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals that bind to receptors in the human body and, in turn, modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They can be endogenously produced, synthetic, or derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L. Research over the past several decades has shown that the ECS is a cellular communication network essential to maintain multiple biological functions and the homeostasis of the body. Indeed, cannabinoids have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological effects,…

Republished by Plato

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on

Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals that bind to receptors in the human body and, in turn, modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They can be endogenously produced, synthetic, or derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L. Research over the past several decades has shown that the ECS is a cellular communication network essential to maintain multiple biological functions and the homeostasis of the body. Indeed, cannabinoids have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological effects, including memory, pain, reproduction, bone remodeling or immunity, to name a few. Unsurprisingly, given these broad physiological effects, alterations of the ECS have been found in different diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the medical use of cannabis has been approved in different countries for a variety of human conditions. However, the use of these compounds, specifically as anticancer agents, remains controversial. Studies have shown that cannabinoids do have anticancer activity in different tumor types such as breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma and adult brain cancer. Specifically, phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of adult cancer cells, as well as modulate angiogenesis and metastasis. Despite increasing evidence that cannabinoids elicit antitumor effects in adult cancers, there is minimal data available on their effects in children or in pediatric cancers despite public and clinical demand for information. Here we describe a comprehensive and critical review of what is known about the effects of cannabinoids on pediatric cancers, highlight current gaps in knowledge and identify the critical issues that need addressing before considering these promising but controversial drugs for use in pediatric oncology.

Keywords: CBD; THC; cannabidiol; cannabinoid; childhood cancer; medical cannabis; pediatric oncology; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33466435/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210120135252&v=2.14.2

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Heartland

Cannabis sativa L. as a Natural Drug Meeting the Criteria of a Multitarget Approach to Treatment

Cannabis sativa L. turned out to be a valuable source of chemical compounds of various structures, showing pharmacological activity. The most important groups of compounds include phytocannabinoids and terpenes. The pharmacological activity of Cannabis (in epilepsy, sclerosis multiplex (SM), vomiting and nausea, pain, appetite loss, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, glaucoma, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), which has been…

Republished by Plato

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Cannabis sativa L. turned out to be a valuable source of chemical compounds of various structures, showing pharmacological activity. The most important groups of compounds include phytocannabinoids and terpenes. The pharmacological activity of Cannabis (in epilepsy, sclerosis multiplex (SM), vomiting and nausea, pain, appetite loss, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, glaucoma, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), which has been proven so far, results from the affinity of these compounds predominantly for the receptors of the endocannabinoid system (the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), type two (CB2), and the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)) but, also, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), glycine receptors, serotonin receptors (5-HT), transient receptor potential channels (TRP), and GPR, opioid receptors. The synergism of action of phytochemicals present in Cannabis sp. raw material is also expressed in their increased bioavailability and penetration through the blood-brain barrier. This review provides an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacology of compounds present in Cannabis extracts in the context of the current knowledge about their synergistic actions and the implications of clinical use in the treatment of selected diseases.

Keywords: Cannabis; multitarget; phytocannabinoids (THC and CBD); receptors; terpenes.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33466734/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210120135252&v=2.14.2

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Heartland

Pervasive cropland in protected areas highlight trade-offs between conservation and food security

Global cropland expansion over the last century caused widespread habitat loss and degradation. Establishment of protected areas aims to counteract the loss of habitats and to slow species extinctions. However, many protected areas also include high levels of habitat disturbance and conversion for uses such as cropland. Understanding where and why this occurs may realign conservation priorities and inform protected area policy in light of competing priorities such as food security. Here, we use…

Republished by Plato

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. 2021 Jan 26;118(4):e2010121118.

doi: 10.1073/pnas.2010121118.

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Varsha Vijay et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. .

Abstract

Global cropland expansion over the last century caused widespread habitat loss and degradation. Establishment of protected areas aims to counteract the loss of habitats and to slow species extinctions. However, many protected areas also include high levels of habitat disturbance and conversion for uses such as cropland. Understanding where and why this occurs may realign conservation priorities and inform protected area policy in light of competing priorities such as food security. Here, we use our global synthesis cropland dataset to quantify cropland in protected areas globally and assess their relationship to conservation aims and socio-environmental context. We estimate that cropland occupies 1.4 million km2 or 6% of global protected area. Cropland occurs across all protected area management types, with 22% occurring in strictly protected areas. Cropland inside protected areas is more prevalent in countries with higher population density, lower income inequality, and with higher agricultural suitability of protected lands. While this phenomenon is dominant in midnorthern latitudes, areas of cropland in protected areas of the tropics and subtropics may present greater trade-offs due to higher levels of both biodiversity and food insecurity. Although area-based targets are prominent in biodiversity goal-setting, our results show that they can mask persistent anthropogenic land uses detrimental to native ecosystem conservation. To ensure the long-term efficacy of protected areas, post-2020 goal setting must link aims for biodiversity and human health and improve monitoring of conservation outcomes in cropland-impacted protected areas.

Keywords: CBD; area-based targets; conservation; food security; protected areas.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interest.

References

    1. Klein Goldewijk K., Beusen A., Doelman J., Stehfest E.. New anthropogenic land use estimates for the holocene: HYDE 3.2. Earth Syst. Sci. Data. 2017;9:927–953.
    1. Barrett C. B.. Measuring food insecurity. Science. 2010;327:825–828.
    1. Fogel R. W.. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the Third World. 2004.
    1. Crist E., Mora C., Engelman R.. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection. Science. 2017;356:260–264.
    1. Pimm S. L., Vijay V.. Population, Agriculture, and Biodiversity: Problems and Prospects. 2020;365.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33468666/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1zmroqAMnEquTZFTfdGx1V1gPEavo-Be3-FKTecJpOlB7LykCL&fc=20200804213506&ff=20210120135252&v=2.14.2

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