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A Functional 3’UTR Polymorphism (rs2235749) of Prodynorphin Alters microRNA-365 Binding in Ventral Striatonigral Neurons to Influence Novelty Seeking and Positive Reward Traits

Genetic factors impact behavioral traits relevant to numerous psychiatric disorders and risk-taking behaviors, and different lines of evidence have indicated that discrete neurobiological systems contribute to such individual differences. In this study, we explored the relationship of genetic variants of the prodynorphin (PDYN) gene, which is enriched in the striatonigral/striatomesencephalic pathway, a key neuronal circuit implicated in positive ‘Go’ behavioral choice and action. Our…

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Genetic factors impact behavioral traits relevant to numerous psychiatric disorders and risk-taking behaviors, and different lines of evidence have indicated that discrete neurobiological systems contribute to such individual differences. In this study, we explored the relationship of genetic variants of the prodynorphin (PDYN) gene, which is enriched in the striatonigral/striatomesencephalic pathway, a key neuronal circuit implicated in positive ‘Go’ behavioral choice and action. Our multidisciplinary approach revealed that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2235749 (in high linkage disequilibrium with rs910080) modifies striatal PDYN expression via impaired binding of miR-365, a microRNA that targets the PDYN 3′-untranslated region (3’UTR), and is significantly associated to novelty- and reward-related behavioral traits in humans and translational animal models. Carriers of the rs2235749G allele exhibited increased levels of PDYN 3’UTR in vitro and had elevated mRNA expression in the medial nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) and caudate nucleus in postmortem human brains. There was an association of rs2235749 with novelty-seeking trait and a strong genotype-dose association with positive reinforcement behavior in control subjects, which differed in cannabis-dependent individuals. Using lentiviral miRZip-365 constructs selectively expressed in Pdyn-neurons of the NAcSh, we demonstrated that the Pdyn-miR365 interaction in the NAcSh directly influences novelty-seeking exploratory behavior and facilitates self-administration of natural reward. Overall, this translational study suggests that genetically determined miR-365-mediated epigenetic regulation of PDYN expression in mesolimbic striatonigral/striatomesencephalic circuits possibly contributes to novelty seeking and positive reinforcement traits.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27074815/?utm_source=no_user_agent&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=1z7zlNEMzQex5jriqkhCblNtckSEpT9xYlxxeymU_73UTETESY&fc=20200804213258&ff=20200810235122&v=2.11.5

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Cbd long term effects study by canopy, lifespan increased?

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Visit our community site for vetted suppliers at http://theCBD.place. It’s time that this subject was given more internet exposure. We are here to discuss topics related to medical marijuana and our experiences using CBD. Please do not assume that anyone here is a medical professional.

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/CBD/comments/jzwr6o/cbd_long_term_effects_study_by_canopy_lifespan/

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CBD firm on high growth track surpasses $5M in sales

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TAMPA — Proleve Distribution, a Tampa based manufacturer of all-natural CBD products, plans to hire 20 people to support a period of hyper-growth.  

Founded in 2017, Proleve, which produces and distributes products containing the hemp extract CBD, or Cannabidiol, will close out 2020 at $5 million in annual revenue, according to a statement. That’s up 178% from $1.8 million in 2019. To keep up with growing demand, Proleve is now in the early stages of building a new distribution center near Tampa International Airport, the release adds. New jobs added in the coming weeks will help support operations at the facility, as well as at the company’s existing South Tampa headquarters, which will be converted into a retail store. 

“In a year that’s been marked with challenges for so many companies and industries, we’re pleased that Proleve has not only been able to withstand such challenges, but overall has actually been able to thrive in this environment,” Proleve Founder and President Jonathan Solomon says in the statement. “With that in mind, we’ve been working really hard to seize this opportunity in order to further position our growth.”

Earlier this year, Proleve became among the first CBD companies to be officially licensed and certified by Florida’s Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services under new regulations. The certification makes Proleve an official state-approved source for food products containing CBD, in addition to being FDA-registered, the release states.

“Having this official status within the state of Florida has meant an added sense of security for our customers,” Solomon says. “It’s turned out to be an important piece of the puzzle this year, even more so than expected, with sales jumping as our products have offered a sense of relief for those who have faced hardship in 2020.”

“During the peak of COVID-19 earlier this year, we were more focused on keeping jobs safe,” Solomon adds. “Now that we see the full extent of how our business plays into the economic recovery of this region, we’re glad to be adding more jobs and serving as a catalyst for growth.”

Proleve’s products are sold in stores nationwide and worldwide. Its products, including tincture, topicals, capsules and bath bombs are all vegan, kosher-certified, third-party lab tested and 100% natural.

                                                                         

Source: https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=https://www.businessobserverfl.com/article/cbd-firm-on-high-growth-track-surpasses-dollar5m-in-sales&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGjQ2MzM1ZTBkNWQyZmIyYzc6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNESyacJcEc1fMFdEgw7Um8nuECjbA

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Home Grown: Community reports minty and floral flavors from hemp green

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CBS 13’s April Hettinger samples Yuma’s newest leafy crop

YUMA, Ariz. (KYMA, KECY) – Hemp leafy greens were put to the test to see if their flavors are worthy enough to make it in bagged mixes in the grocery stores.

81 people took a survey of nine samples the past two Fridays.

Staff was able to narrow down the 17 types of hemp to five that were the best tasting.

The community sampled the five hemp greens along with three commonly available greens like romaine, kale and baby leaf spinach for comparison.

The ninth sample was a pesto made from the hemp greens by local chefs.

The grower, Robert Masson, agriculture extension agent with the University of Arizona’s Yuma County extension explains the overall consensus of this unique lettuce.

“In general, the hemp was really well liked. Some people didn’t like it, but most of the people did,” Masson said. “They reported minty flavors, fruity flavors and just a little bit of floral.”

Attendees rated the crispiness of the hemp to be similar to kale.

It also has more peach fuzz than other greens.

In its overall likeability, the community rated romaine and spinach higher than the hemp at a 4.1 on a one through five scale.

Hemp was rated a 3.3.

The best tasting hemp greens might make it into grocery stores as bagged mixes for health benefits.

Source: https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=https://kyma.com/news/home-grown/2020/11/23/home-grown-community-reports-minty-and-floral-flavors-from-hemp-green/&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGjYxZmRhODRmNjY4MjhhNTU6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNE7rcoLiE_6doYx8sPtN8OaaibwHQ

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